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Annam (French Protectorate)
Annam (Vietnamese: An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam. Before the protectorate's establishment, the name Annam was used in the West to refer to Vietnam as a whole. Vietnamese were referred to as "Annamites." The protectorate of Annam became in 1887 a part of French Indochina. Two other Vietnamese regions, Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ) in the South and Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ) in the North, were also units of French Indochina. The region had a dual system of French and Vietnamese administration. The Nguyễn Dynasty still nominally ruled Annam, with a puppet emperor residing in Huế. In 1948, the protectorate was merged in the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, which was replaced the next year by the newly established State of Vietnam
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Sino-Vietnamese Vocabulary
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Vietnamese: Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm: 詞漢越, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language borrowed from Chinese. They comprise about a third of the Vietnamese lexicon, and may account for as much as 60% of the vocabulary used in formal texts. This vocabulary was originally written with Chinese characters that were used in the Vietnamese writing system, but like all written Vietnamese, is now written with the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet that was adopted in the early 20th century. Together with Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese vocabularies, Sino-Vietnamese has been used in the reconstruction of the sound categories of Middle Chinese
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North Vietnam
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976. Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared independence from French Indochina on 2 September 1945 and announced the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France reasserted its colonial dominance and a war ensued between France and the Viet Minh, led by President Ho Chi Minh. The Viet Minh ("League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a coalition of nationalist groups, mostly led by communists. In February 1951, the communists announced the creation of the Lao Động Party (Labour Party), gradually marginalizing non-communists in the Việt Minh. Between 1946 and 1954, the Việt Minh captured and controlled most of the rural areas of Vietnam
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Hanoi
Hanoi (UK: /(ˌ)hæ-, həˈnɔɪ/ ha-, hə-NOY or US: /hɑː-/ hah-NOY; Vietnamese: Hà Nội [hàː nôjˀ] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital of Vietnam. It covers an area of 3,328.9 square kilometres (1,285 sq mi). With an estimated population of 7.7 million as of 2018, it is the second largest city in Vietnam. The metropolitan area, encompassing nine additional neighbouring provinces, has an estimated population of 16 million. Located in the central area of the Red River Delta, Hanoi is the commercial, cultural, and educational centre of Northern Vietnam. Having an estimated nominal GDP of US$32.8 billion, it is the second most productive economic centre of Vietnam, following Ho Chi Minh City. Originally a small settlement along the banks of the Red River, the city was founded as Thăng Long, the capital of Imperial Vietnam, in 1010 by monarch Lý Thái Tổ
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Gulf Of Tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnamese: Vịnh Bắc Bộ, simplified Chinese: 北部湾; traditional Chinese: 北部灣; pinyin: Běibù Wān; Hainanese: Pak-pōe Oân; also simplified Chinese: 东京湾; traditional Chinese: 東京灣; pinyin: Dōngjīng Wān) is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China. It is a northern arm of the South China Sea
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Red River (Vietnam)
The Red River (simplified Chinese: 红河; traditional Chinese: 紅河; pinyin: Hóng Hé; Vietnamese: Sông Hồng), also known as the Hồng Hà and Sông Cái (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese and the Yuan River (元江, Yuán Jiāng) in Chinese, is a river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin. According to C
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Annamite Range
The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains (French: Chaîne Annamitique; Lao: ພູ ຫລວງ Xai Phou Luang; Vietnamese: Dãy Trường Sơn) is a mountain range of eastern Indochina, which extends approximately 1,100 km (680 mi) through Laos, Vietnam, and a small area in northeast Cambodia. The mountain range is also referred to variously as Annamese Range, Annamese Mountains, Annamese Cordillera, Annamite Mountains and Annamite Cordillera. The highest points of the range are 2,819 m high Phou Bia, 2,720 m high Phu Xai Lai Leng and Ngọc Linh (Ngoc Pan), 2,598 m (8,524 ft)
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Treaty Of Huế (1883)
The Treaty of Huế, concluded on 25 August 1883 between France and Vietnam, recognised a French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin. Dictated to the Vietnamese by the French administrator François-Jules Harmand in the wake of the French military seizure of the Thuận An forts, the treaty is often known as the 'Harmand Treaty'
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Vietnamese Cash
Vietnamese cash (Vietnamese: văn; Hán tự: ; French: Sapèque) is a cast round coin with a square hole that was an official currency of Vietnam from the Đinh dynasty in 968 until the Nguyễn dynasty in 1945, and remained in circulation in North Vietnam until 1948. The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan, Korea, and Ryūkyū for centuries
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Nguyễn Lords
The Nguyễn lords (Vietnamese: Chúa Nguyễn; 1558–1777), also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were a series of rulers of now southern and central Vietnam, then called Đàng Trong or Inner Land as opposite to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Land, ruled by the Trịnh Lords. While they recognized and claimed to be loyal subjects of the Later Lê dynasty, they were de facto kings of Cochinchina, while the Trịnh lords ruled the north, where the emperor remained most of the time a puppet figure. They fought a long, bitter war that lasted 45 years that separated Vietnam into two polities for nearly two centuries. After the Tây Sơn wars, their descendants would finally rule over the whole of Vietnam as the Nguyễn dynasty and posthumously elevated their titles to emperors
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Animism
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples, especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Confucianism
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China. Variously described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life, Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE). Confucius considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1046–256 BCE) for the Warring States period. Confucianism was suppressed during the Legalist and autocratic Qin dynasty (221-206 BCE), but survived
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Mahayana Buddhism
Mahāyāna (/ˌmɑːhəˈjɑːnə/; Sanskrit for "great vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. This movement added a further set of discourses, and although it was initially small in India, it had long-term historical significance. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahayana Buddhism, but some scholars may consider it as a different branch altogether. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of the Bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle". A bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a samyaksaṃbuddha, or "fully enlightened Buddha"
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Islam
Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/; Arabic: ٱلْإِسْلَام‎, romanized
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Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites
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Gia Long
Gia Long (Vietnamese: [zaː lawŋm]; 8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh ), was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne
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