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The Indian Union Muslim League or I. U. M. L. (commonly referred to as the League inside Kerala) is an Indian political party primarily based in the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is recognized by the Election Commission of India as a State Party. The first Council of the IUML, which was at the time the Indian successor of the Muslim League, was held on 10 March 1948 at the south Indian city of Madras. The 'Indian Union Muslim League' constitution was passed on 1 September 1951. The party is a major member of the United Democratic Front, the Indian National Congress -led pre-poll state level alliance in KeralaJames Chiriyankandath (1996) Changing Muslim politics in Kerala: identity, interests and political strategies, ''Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs'', 16:2, 257-271. and has always had a constant, albeit small, presence in the Lok Sabha. The party is a part of the United Progressive Alliance at the national level. The League got its first union minister (Minister of State for External Affairs) in the first Manmohan Singh ministry in 2004. The party currently has four members in Parliament - P. K. Kunhalikutty, E. T. Mohammed Basheer, and K. Navas Kani in the Lok Sabha and P. V. Abdul Wahab in the Rajya Sabha and nineteen members in State Legislative Assemblies of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

History

After the partition of India in 1947, the All-India Muslim League was virtually disbanded. It was succeeded by the Indian segment of the Muslim League in the new Dominion of India (first session on 10 March 1948 and constitution passed on 1 September 1951). M. Muhammad Ismail, the then President of the Madras Muslim League (M. M. L.) was chosen as the Convener of the Indian segment of the League.Wright, T. (1966). The Muslim League in South India since Independence: A Study in Minority Group Political Strategies. ''The American Political Science Review,'' ''60''(3), 579-599. The Travancore League (the States' Muslim League) was merged with the Malabar League in November, 1956. Indian Union Muslim League contests General Elections under the Indian Constitution. The party is normally represented by two members in the Indian Lower House (the Lok Sabha). B. Pocker, elected from Malappuram Constituency, was a member of the First Lower House (1952–57) from the Madras Muslim League (M. M. L.). The party currently has four members in Parliament. Apart from Kerala and West Bengal, the League had Legislative Assembly members in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Maharastra, Karanataka, Uttar Pradesh, and Assam. In West Bengal, the League had won Assembly seats in the 1970s, and A. K. A. Hassanussaman was a member of the Ajoy Mukherjee cabinet. Indian Union Muslim League first gained a ministry in Kerala Government as part of the Communist Party of India Marxist-led United Front in 1967. The party switched fronts in 1969 and formed an alliance with the Congress in 1976. It later became a chief constituent in a succession of Indian National Congress-lead ministries.


Early years


*First Council of the Indian segment of the Muslim League was held on 10 March 1948 at the south Indian city of Madras (now Chennai). *On 1 September 1951 the 'Indian Union Muslim League' came into being in Madras (constitution was passed). *B. Pocker Sahib, elected from Malappuram Constituency, was a member of the first Lok Sabha (1952–57). *K. M Seethi Sahib served as the Speaker of the Kerala Assemby from 1960 to 1961.'


From the 1960s to the 80s


*The League gained a ministry in Kerala Government in 1967 (C. H. Mohammed Koya and M. P. M. Ahammed Kurikkal). *The League oversaw the creation of the University of Calicut, the second university in Kerala, in 1968. * Contribution to local government - the League oversaw the creation of Malappuram District in 1969. *Death of M. Muhammad Ismail (1972) and Bafaqy Thangal (1973). Syed Ummer Bafaqy Thangal rebels against the leadership.


With the Congress Party


*Muslim League formed an alliance with the Congress in 1976. *C. H. Mohammed Koya served as the Chief Minister of Kerala from 12 October to 1 December 1979.Chief Minister of Kerala (Official Website)
/ref> *Muslim League joined the Congress (Indira)-lead United Democratic Front in 1979/80. *The 'rebel' Muslim League formed 'All India Muslim League' and joined the Left Front in 1980. *C. H. Mohammed Koya and K. Avukaderkutty Naha served as Deputy Chief Ministers of Kerala in the 1980s.Chief Minister of Kerala (Official Website)
/ref>


In the 1990s


*All India Muslim League (AIML) quit the Left Front and merged with the Muslim League in 1985. *Demolition of the Babri Masjid (1992). Panakkad Syed Mohammed Ali Shihab Thangal made a passionate plea to all the Muslims in Kerala to remain calm. Kerala remained peaceful throughout. *Ebrahim Sulaiman Sait, then National President, rebelled and formed the Indian National League (INL) in 1994. *Minister of Education (E. T. Mohammad Basheer) decided to establish the University of Sanskrit (1994) in Kerala.


From the 2000s


*Atal Bihari Vajpayee dispatched E. Ahamed to the United Nations (Geneva) to represent India (2004). *Mid-2000s witnessed the Manjeri (2004) and the Kuttippuram-Mankada (2006) defeats. *The League first gained a ministry (E. Ahamed) in Indian Government (Manmohan Singh Ministry) in 2004. *Panakkad Syed Mohammed Ali Shihab Thangal passed away in 2009. *The League won a record 20 out the constested 23 seats in the 2011 Assembly Elections.


Ideology


IUML was formed "to preserve and promote the religious and cultural identities of Indian Muslims and other minorities and backward classes of the country". Even though the constitution of IUML has pledged allegiance to the secular Constitution of India, the party has opposed many constitutional verdicts by the Supreme Court of India like those allowing the entry of women of menstruating age to Sabarimala temple & abolishing Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, in which the court had upheld the constitutional right to equality above religious & cultural values.


Composition





Organizational structure


* Youth Wing: Muslim Youth League (the Youth League)br>
**National President: Asif Ansari (New Delhi) **Kerala State General Secretary: P. K. Firoz **Kerala State President: Syed Munawar Ali Shihab Thangal **National Secretary: C. K. Subair (Kerala) *Students' Wing: Muslim Students Federation (M. S. F.) **National President: T. P. Ashrafali **National General Secretary: S. H. Muhammed Arshad * Dalit wing: Indian Union Dalit League * Women's Political Wing: Muslim Women's League * Trade Union Organization (Kerala): Swathanthra Thozhilali Union (S. T. U., Independent Workers Union) * Peasants' Union (Kerala): Swathanthra Karshaka Sangam (Independent Peasants Union) * Advocates: Lawyers Forum * Expatriates: Kerala Muslim Cultural Centre (K. M. C. C.)


Kerala Legislative Assembly


''Source: http://www.ceo.kerala.gov.in/electionhistory.html''


Early years (1957 - 1979/80)





With the United Democratic Front (1979/80 - present)





Current members





Lower House (the Lok Sabha)


''Source
Loksabha
'

Council of States (the Rajya Sabha)

''Source
Rajyasabha
'

Controversies




Role in Marad massacre


The judicial commission which probed the Marad massacre concluded that IUML was directly involved in the conspiracy and execution of the massacre.


Opposition to Child Marriage Act


IUML has consistently opposed the Child Marriage Act by saying that it contravenes Muslim personal law. A circular issued by Local Self Government Department of Kerala which was under IUML in 2013 asking to register marriages of muslim women under the age of 18 had created controversy resulting in later withdrawal.

References




External links


* {{United Progressive Alliance |state=collapsed Category:Political parties established in 1948 Category:Political parties established in 1951 Category:Muslim League Category:Muslim League breakaway groups Category:Islamic political parties in India Category:Islam in Kerala Category:1948 establishments in India Category:Conservative parties in India