TheInfoList

19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20. It is a prime number.

Mathematics

19 is the 8th prime number, the seventh Mersenne prime exponent, and the second base-10 repunit prime exponent. 19 is the maximum number of fourth powers needed to sum up to any natural number, and in the context of Waring's problem, 19 is the fourth value of g(k). In addition, 19 is a Heegner number and a centered hexagonal number. 19 is also a centered triangular number, being the smallest such number that is also prime. Moreover, there exists only one nontrivial normal magic hexagon: the one composed of 19 cells.

Science

* 19 is the atomic number of potassium. * 19 years is very close to 235 lunations. See Metonic cycle. * COVID-19 is the shortened name of Coronavirus disease 2019, the cause of the global pandemic that began in 2019.

Religion

Islam

* The number of angels guarding Hell ("Hellfire") ("Saqar") according to the Qur'an: ''"Over it are nineteen"'' (74:30), after which the Qur'an describes this number as being ''"a trial for those who disbelieve"'' (74:31), a sign for people of the scripture to be ''"convinced"'' (74:31) and that believers ''"will increase in faith"'' (74:31) due to it... * The Number of Verse and Sura together in the Qur'an which announces Jesus son of Maryam's (Mary's) birth (Qur'an 19:19). * A group called United Submitter International claim the Quran has mathematical structure based on the number 19. The gematrical value of WAHD = 6+1+8+4=19, Wahd means 'One' (God) to the first verse (1:1), known as Bas-malah, consists of 19 Arabic letters or the Quran consists of 114 (19x6) su-ras etc.

Baháʼí faith

In the Bábí and Baháʼí Faiths, a group of 19 is called a ''Váhid'', a Unity (Arabic: واحد ''wāhid'', "one"). The numerical value of this word in the Abjad numeral system is 19. * The Baháʼí calendar is structured such that a year contains 19 months of 19 days each (along with the intercalary period of Ayyám-i-Há), as well as a 19-year cycle and a 361-year (19x19) supercycle. *The Báb and his disciples formed a group of 19. *There were 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.

Music

*"19" is a 1985 song by Paul Hardcastle, including sampled soundbites taken from a documentary about the Vietnam War in which 19 is claimed to have been the average age of United States soldiers killed in the conflict. The song was parodied by British satirist Rory Bremner under the pseudonym 'The Commentators,' as ''N-n-nineteen, Not Out'', the title referring to the batting average of David Gower, the England cricket captain, during his side's risible performance against the West Indies in 1984 when they lost 5–0. *"I Was Only Nineteen" by the Australian group Redgum reached number one on the Australian charts in 1983. In 2005 a hip hop version of the song was produced by The Herd. *''19'' is the name of Adele's 2008 debut album, so named since she was 19 years old at the time. *"Hey Nineteen" is a song by American jazz rock band Steely Dan, on the 1980 album ''Gaucho''. *Nineteen has been used as an alternative to twelve for a division of the octave into equal parts. This idea goes back to Salinas in the sixteenth century, and is interesting in part because it gives a system of meantone tuning, being close to 1/3 comma meantone. ''See 19 equal temperament.'' *Some organs use the 19th harmonic to approximate a minor third.

Literature

*Stephen King's eight-book epic ''The Dark Tower'' saga employs the number 19 in books ''The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger'', ''The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla'', ''The Dark Tower VI: Song of Susannah'', ''The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower'', and ''The Wind Through the Keyhole'' as a mysterious and important number. They refer to the "ka-tet of 19", "Directive Nineteen," many names add up to 19, 19 seems to permeate every aspect of Roland and his traveler's lives. In addition, the number ends up being a powerful key. *In Jodi Picoult's bestselling book ''Nineteen Minutes'', the number 19 is referenced multiple times. It is most commonly referenced when referring to the main subject of the book, the school shooting rampage that took place over a span of 19 minutes. *The novel ''S.'' by Doug Dorst uses 19 and its multiples throughout. S is the 19th letter of the alphabet.

Games

*The game of Go is played on a grid of 19×19 lines (though variants can be played on grids of other sizes). *Though the maximum score for a cribbage hand is 29, there is no combination of cards that adds up to 19 points. Many cribbage players, therefore, jokingly refer to a zero-point hand as "a 19 hand." *In Ecuadorian card game "40", when counting the number of cards gathered in a hand, the limit is 19, after which the count starts at 6 and represents the points achieved during that hand.

Age 19

*This is the age of majority in some countries, Canadian provinces, and U.S. states. *This is the minimum age that is legal to buy tobacco products in the states Alabama, Alaska, Utah and several counties in New York including Nassau, and Onondaga. *This is the minimum age at which one can drink and buy alcohol in Canada except for the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec where the drinking and purchase age of alcohol is 18.

In sports

* In golf, the '19th hole' is the clubhouse bar and in match play, if there is a tie after 18 holes, an extra hole(s) is played. In miniature golf it is an extra hole on which the winner earns an instant prize.

Other fields

* The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution gave American women the right to vote. * The Vietnam War spanned over 19 years, from November 1955 to April 1975.

References