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Aliyah
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Jewish return to the Land of Israel
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Pre-Modern Aliyah
Aliyah in modern times
Absorption
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  • Yishuv
  • Sabra
  • Yerida
  • Jewish refugees
  • History of the Jews in the Land of Israel
  • Demographic history of Palestine (region)
  • Historical Jew

    Aliyah (US: /ˌæliˈɑː/, UK: /ˌɑː-/; Hebrew: עֲלִיָּהaliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel. Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent").[1] The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews, their children, and their grandchildren automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship.

    For much of Jewish history, most Jews have lived in the diaspora where aliyah was developed as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, although it was not usually fulfilled until the development of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century.[2] The large-scale immigration of Jews to Palestine began in 1882.[3] Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, more than 3 million Jews have moved to Israel.[4] As of 2014, Israel and adjacent territories contain 42.9% of the world's Jewish population.[5]

    The original day

    The original day chosen for Yom HaAliyah, the tenth of Nisan, is laden with symbolism. Although a modern holiday created by the Knesset of Israel, the tenth of Nisan is a date of religious significance for the Jewish People as recounted in the Hebrew Bible and in traditional Jewish thought.[103]

    On the tent

    On the tenth of Nisan, according to the biblical narrative in the Book of Joshua, Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River at Gilgal into the Promised Land while carrying the Ark of the Covenant. It was thus the first documented "mass aliyah." On that day, God commanded the Israelites to commemorate and celebrate the occasion by erecting twelve stones with the text of the Torah engraved upon them. The stones represented the entirety of the Jewish nation's twelve tribes and their gratitude for God's gift of the Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern: Eretz Yisrael, Tiberian: ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) to them.[104]

    Yom HaAliyah, as a modern holiday celebration, began in 2009 as a grassroots community initiative and young Olim self-initiated movement in Tel Aviv, spearheaded by the TLV Internationals organization of the Am Yisrael Foundation.[105] On June 21, 2016 the Twentieth Knesset voted in favor of codifying the grassroots initiative into law by officially adding Yom HaAliyah to the Israeli national calendar.[106] The Yom HaAliyah bill[107] was co-sponsored by Knesset members from different parties in a rare instance of cooperation across the political spectrum of the opposition and coalition.[108]

    The number of immigrants since 1882 by period, continent of birth, and country of birth is given in the table below. Continent of birth and country of birth data is almost always unavailable or nonexistent for before 1919.[54][111][110]

    Region/Country 1882–
    1918
    1919–
    1948
    1948–
    1951
    1952–
    1960
    1961–
    1971
    1972–
    1979
    1980–
    1989
    1990–
    2001
    2002–
    2010
    2011–
    2020
    Total
    AfricaContour.svg Africa 4,033 93,282 143,485 164,885 19,273 28,664 55,619 31,558 20,843 561,642
    Algeria Algeria 994 3,810 3,433 12,857 2,137 1,830 1,682 1,967 324 29,034
    Sudan Egypt and Sudan 0 16,028 17,521 2,963 535 372 202 166 21 37,808
    Ethiopian Empire AbyssiniaEthiopia Ethiopia and Eritrea Eritrea 0 10 59 98 309 16,971 45,131 23,613 10,500 96,691
    Libya Libya 873 30,972 2,079 2,466 219 67 94 36 5 36,811
    Morocco Morocco 0 28,263 95,945 130,507 7,780 3,809 3,276 2,113 384 272,077
    South Africa South Africa 259 666 774 3,783 5,604 3,575 3,283 1,693 2,560 22,197
    Tunisia Tunisia 0 13,293 23,569 11,566 2,148 1,942 1,607 1,871 398 56,394
    Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 0 37 22 145 393 82 26 14 719
    Other (Africa) 1,907 203 83 500 148 16 318 85 24 3,284
    NorthAmericaGreen.gifContinentSouthAmerica.svgAustraliaContour.svg Americas and Oceania 7,579 3,822 6,922 42,400 45,040 39,369 39,662 36,209 51,370 272,373
    Argentina Argentina 238 904 2,888 11,701 13,158 10,582 11,248 9,450 3,150 63,319
    Australia Australia 0 116 107 742 1,146 835 977 524 4,447
    Bolivia Bolivia 0 0 0 199 94 80 53 84 510
    Brazil Brazil 0 304 763 2,601 1,763 1,763 2,356 2,037 4,320 15,907
    Canada Canada 316 236 276 2,169 2,178 1,867 1,963 1,700 6,340 17,045
    Chile