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Anatolia
Map of the geographic region of Anatolia.png
The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey, excluding most of Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia Region[1][2]
Geography
Location
Coordinates39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35Coordinates: 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35
Area756,000 km2 (292,000 sq mi)[3]
(incl. Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia Region)
Administration
Turkey
Largest cityAnkara (pop. 5,700,000[4])
Demographics
DemonymAnatolian
LanguagesTurkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, Azeri, Kabardian, various others
Ethnic groupsTurks, Kurds, Armenians, Greeks, Azerbaijanis, Assyrian people, Laz, various others
Additional information
Time zone

Anatolia[a] is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Turkish Straits to the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, the Armenian Highlands to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Southeast Europe.

The eastern border of Anatolia has been held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highlands to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Today, however, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey;[5] its eastern and southeastern borders are widely taken to be Turkey's eastern border.[6][7][8]

The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct [a] is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Turkish Straits to the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, the Armenian Highlands to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Southeast Europe.

The eastern border of Anatolia has been held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highlands to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Today, however, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey;[5] its eastern and southeastern borders are widely taken to be Turkey's eastern border.[6][7][8]

The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages of the Indo-European language family, which were largely replaced by the Greek language from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian, while other, poorly attested local languages included Phrygian and Mysian. Hurro-Urartian languages were spoken in the southeastern kingdom of Mitanni, while Galatian, a Celtic language, was spoken in Galatia, central Anatolia. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries and under today's Republic of Turkey. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian and Aeolic Greeks.