:''Not to be confused with industrial archaeology
, the archaeology of (modern) industrial sites.''
_[[handaxes_from_[[Kent.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="handaxe.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Acheulean [[handaxe">Acheulean [[handaxes from [[Kent">handaxe.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Acheulean [[handaxe">Acheulean [[handaxes from [[Kent. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron, and ovate.]]
In the [[archaeology]] of the [[Stone Age]], an industry or technocomplex
is a [[typology (archaeology)|typological]] classification of [[stone tools]].
An industry consists of a number of lithic assemblages
, typically including a range of different types of tools, that are grouped together on the basis of shared technological or morphological
characteristics. For example, the Acheulean industry
and other tools with different forms, but which were all manufactured by the symmetrical reduction
of a bifacial core
producing large flakes. Industries are usually named after a type site
where these characteristics were first observed (e.g. the Mousterian industry
is named after the site of Le Moustier
). By contrast, Neolithic
axeheads from the Langdale axe industry
were recognised as a type well before the centre at Great Langdale
was identified by finds of debitage
and other remains of the production, and confirmed by petrography
(geological analysis). The stone was quarried and rough axe heads were produced there, to be more finely worked and polished elsewhere.
As a taxonomic classification of artefacts, industries rank higher than archaeological culture
s. Cultures are usually defined from a range of different artefact types and are thought to be related to a distinct cultural tradition
. By contrast, industries are defined by basic elements of lithic production which may have been used by many unrelated human groups over tens or even hundred thousands of years,
and over very wide geographical ranges. Sites producing tools from the Acheulean industry stretch from France to China, as well as Africa. Consequently, shifts between lithic industries are thought to reflect major milestones in human evolution, such as changes in cognitive ability or even the replacement of one human species by another. However, findings from ancient DNA studies describe several changes and periods of stasis in European populations that are not strongly reflected in the current cultural taxonomic frameworks.
Therefore, artefacts from a single industry may come from a number of different cultures.
* Archaeological horizon
* Lithic technology
Category:Methods in archaeology