The Balkan Romance languages, also known as Daco-Romance languages, form the easternmost sub-branch[2] of the Romance language family.[3]


Balkan Romance comprises Romanian (or Daco-Romanian), Aromanian (or Macedo-Romanian), Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, according to the most widely accepted classification of the Romance languages.[2][4][5][6][7] The four languages—sometimes labelled as "dialects" of Romanian[2]—developed from a common ancestor.[7] They are surrounded by non-Romance languages.[8] Judaeo-Spanish (or Ladino) is also spoken in the Balkan Peninsula, but it is rarely listed among the Balkan Romance languages because it developed as a Jewish lect of Old Spanish in the far west of Europe, and it only began to be spoken widely in the Balkans after the influx of Ladino-speaking refugees into the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.[6]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balkan Romance". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c Schulte 2009, p. 231.
  3. ^ Mallinson 1988, pp. 22–23.
  4. ^ Mallinson 1988, p. 23.
  5. ^ Posner 1996, pp. 217–218.
  6. ^ a b Lindstedt 2014, p. 168.
  7. ^ a b Maiden 2016, p. 91.
  8. ^ Posner 1996, p. 217.