, worn throughout the African Great Lakes
Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textile
s but over time has included garments made from animal skin
or other thin sheets of materials put together. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human being
s and is a feature of all human societies
. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on gender, body type, social, and geographic considerations.
Clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements
, rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites
s, thorns and prickles
by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, and they can provide a hygienic
barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation
Wearing clothes is also a social norm
, and being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing
. In most parts of the world, not wearing clothes in public so that genitals
s or buttocks
are visible could be considered indecent exposure
Origin and history
Scientists have never agreed on when humans began wearing clothes and estimates submitted by various experts have ranged greatly from 40,000 to 3 million years ago. More recently, studies involving the evolution of body lice
have pointed to a more recent development, implying the use of clothes around 170,000 years ago with others indicating as little as 40,000. However, despite these indications, there is no single estimate that is widely accepted.
Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists
at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
, conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice
that suggests clothing originated around 170,000 years ago. Body lice are an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests that the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern ''Homo sapiens
'' away from the warm climate
, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. A second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated between 114,000 and 30,000 years ago.
According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur
, leaves, or grass that were draped, wrapped, or tied around the body. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needle
s of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki
in 1988. Dyed flax
fibers that could have been used in clothing have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia
that date back to 34,000 BC.
Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle
, traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers including wool, linen
, hemp, and ramie
Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fiber making, spinning, and weaving. The textile
industry was the first to be mechanized – with the powered loom
– during the Industrial Revolution
Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit – for example, the dhoti
for men and the sari
for women in the Indian subcontinent
, the Scottish kilt
and the Javanese sarong
. The clothes may simply be tied up (dhoti and sari); or pins or belts hold the garments in place (kilt and sarong). The cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes
can wear the garment.
Another approach involves measuring, cutting, and sewing the cloth by hand or with a sewing machine
. Clothing can be cut from a sewing pattern
and adjusted by a tailor to the wearer's measurements. An adjustable sewing mannequin or dress form
is used to create form-fitting clothing. If the fabric is expensive, the tailor tries to use every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing; perhaps cutting triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and adding them elsewhere as gusset
s. Traditional European patterns for men's shirt
s and women's chemise
s take this approach. These remnants can also be reused to make patchwork hats, vests, and skirts.
Modern European fashion
treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilt
In the thousands of years that humans have been making clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photo
s, etc., as well as from written descriptions. Costume history can inspire current fashion designer
s, as well as costumiers for plays
, and historical reenactment
The most obvious function of clothing is to protect the wearer from the elements. In hot weather, clothing provides protection from sunburn
damage. In the cold, it offers thermal insulation
. Shelter can reduce the functional need for clothing. For example, coats
s and other outer layers are normally removed when entering a warm place. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones.
Clothing has been made from a very wide variety of materials, ranging from leather and fur
s to woven fabrics to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics
. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses
), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves
), worn purely for adornment (jewelry
), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses
), are normally considered accessories
rather than clothing.
Clothing protects against many things that might injure or irritate the uncovered human body, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. Garments that are too sheer, thin, small or tight offer less protection. Appropriate clothes can also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insect
s, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons
, and contact with abrasive substances.
Humans have devised clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits
, air conditioned clothing
, diving suits
, bee-keeper gear
, motorcycle leathers
, high-visibility clothing
, and other pieces of protective clothing
. The distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable often have protective value and clothes designed for function often consider fashion
in their design. The choice of clothes also has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, and serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or simply lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby.
Clothing performs a range of social and cultural
functions, such as individual, occupational and gender differentiation, and social status.
[ Alternative (This work is one of the earliest attempts at an overview of the psycho-social and practical functions of clothing)]
In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty
, and social status
. Clothing may also function as adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.
Function of clothing
Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics.
Some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.C. Flügel
's ''Psychology of Clothes'' in 1930,
and Newburgh's seminal ''Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing'' in 1949.
By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded significantly, but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little.
[ (reviewer's name appears next to Newburgh, but was not the co-author. See also reviewer's name at bottom of page).]
There has since been considerable research, and the knowledge base has grown significantly, but the main concepts remain unchanged, and indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development.
History of clothing
Clothing reveals much about human history. According to Professor Kiki Smith of Smith College, garments preserved in collections are resources for study similar to books and paintings.
Scholars around the world have studied a wide range of topics, including the history of specific items of clothing, clothing styles in different cultural groups and the business of clothing and fashion. The textile curator Linda Baumgarten writes that "clothing provides a remarkable picture of the daily lives, beliefs, expectations, and hopes of those who lived in the past.
Clothing presents a number of challenges to historians. Clothing made of textiles or skins are subject to decay, and the erosion of physical integrity can be seen as a loss of cultural information. Costume collections often focus on important pieces of clothing considered unique or otherwise significant, limiting the opportunities scholars have to study everyday clothing.
Sweden Vaxholm 1938.jpg|A group of women and men gathered at sport event in Sweden (1938).
3rd Duke of Fife in Kilt. Allan Warren.jpg|3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt (1984).
Ring ceremony, Indian Hindu wedding.jpg|A Hindu North Indian wedding, with the groom wearing a sherwani and pagri turban, while the bride in a sari.
Shinzō Abe and Ivanka Trump (4).jpg|Daughter of President Trump, Ivanka Trump (right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe wearing Western-style business suits as per their gender, 2017.
Gabriel Garko and Laura Torrisi - nicogenin - 66ème Festival de Venise (Mostra) - The Road (3).jpg|Red carpet fashion: Italian actors Gabriel Garko and Laura Torrisi wearing designer dress code, 2009. The man is in suit and the woman is wearing a gown.
In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate. The differences are in styles, colors, fabrics, and types.
In Western societies, skirt
, and high-heeled shoe
s are usually seen as women's clothing, while necktie
s are usually seen as men's clothing. Trousers
were once seen as exclusively men's clothing, but nowadays are worn by both genders. Men's clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles are available for women. Men are typically allowed to bare their chests
in a greater variety of public places. It is generally common for a woman to wear clothing perceived as masculine, while the opposite is seen as unusual.
In some cultures, sumptuary law
s regulate what men and women are required to wear. Islam
requires women to wear more modest forms of attire, usually hijab
. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies; however, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men. Articles of clothing Muslim women wear for modesty range from the head-scarf
to the burqa
Men may sometimes choose to wear men's skirts
such as togas
s in particular cultures, especially on ceremonial occasions. Such garments were (in previous times) often worn as normal daily clothing by men.
Clothing designed to be worn by either sex is called unisex clothing
. Unisex clothes, such as T-shirts, tend to be cut straighter to fit a wider variety of bodies. The majority of unisex clothing styles have started out as menswear, but some articles, like the fedora
, were originally worn by women.
Rajput Sherwani 2014-04-23 04-27.JPG|''Achkan'' sherwani and ''churidar'' (lower body) worn by Arvind Singh Mewar and his kin during a Hindu wedding in Rajasthan, India. Traditionally, these clothes were worn by the elites of the Indian subcontinent.
MyBarong created this Custom tailored Barong Tagalog for my wedding.jpg|A Barong Tagalog made for a wedding ceremony.
Prokudin-Gorskii-19.jpg|Alim Khan's bemedaled robe sends a social message about his wealth, status, and power.
In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status
. In ancient Rome
, for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple
. In traditional Hawaiian
society, only high-ranking chiefs could wear feather cloak
s and palaoa, or carved whale
teeth. In China, before establishment of the republic
, only the emperor could wear yellow
. History provides many examples of elaborate sumptuary law
s that regulated what people could wear. In societies without such laws, which includes most modern societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of rare or luxury items that are limited by cost to those with wealth or status. In addition, peer pressure
influences clothing choice.
Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg|The Buddha wearing kāṣāya robes. Originating from ancient India, these robes were worn by fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns.
Takbir of prayer.jpg|Muslim men traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers.
Clerical clothing.jpg|Clerical clothing worn by Catholic priests.
Some religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status.
For example, Jain
s and Muslim men wear unstitched cloth
pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression. Sikhs wear a turban as it is a part of their religion.
The cleanliness of religious dresses in some religions such as Hinduism
is of paramount importance since it indicates purity.
Clothing appears in numerous contexts in the Bible
; the most prominent passages are: the story of Adam and Eve
who made coverings for themselves out of fig leaves
. Furthermore, the priests officiating in the Temple in Jerusalem had very specific garments, the lack of which made one liable to death.
The Quran says about husbands and wives, regarding clothing: "...They are clothing/covering (Libaas) for you; and you for them" (chapter 2:187).
Jewish ritual also requires rending of one's upper garment as a sign of mourning.
members wear religious vestments
services and may wear specific non-liturgical clothing
at other times.
Western dress code
The Western dress code has changed over the past 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry
made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabric
s has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans
became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire. Activewear
has also become a large and growing market.
Jeans in the Western dress code are worn by both men and women. There are several unique styles of jeans found which include: high rise jeans, mid rise jeans, low rise jeans, bootcut jeans, straight jeans, cropped jeans, skinny jeans, cuffed jeans, boyfriend jeans, and capri jeans.
The licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin
in the 1960s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry
from about the 1970s. Among the more popular include Marc Jacobs
, named for Marc Jacobs and Guccio Gucci respectively.
Spread of western styles
By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism
. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion
clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing. Donated used
clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations.
Ethnic and cultural heritage
People may wear ethnic or national dress
on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanbok
s on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt
with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu
Sport and activity
Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear
garments include shorts
s, tennis shirt
s, and trainers
. Specialized garments include wet suit
s (for swimming
) and leotards
). Also, spandex
materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as volleyball, wrestling, track & field
, dance, gymnastics and swimming.
Paris set the fashion trends for Europe and North America 1900–1940. In the 1920s the goal was all about getting loose. Women wore dresses all day, everyday. Day dresses had a drop waist, which was a sash or belt around the low waist or hip and a skirt that hung anywhere from the ankle on up to the knee, never above. Daywear had sleeves (long to mid-bicep) and a skirt that was straight, pleaded, hank hem, or tired. Jewelry was less conspicuous. Hair was often bobbed, giving a boyish look.
In the 21st century a diverse range of styles exist in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture
to traditional garb, to thrift store grunge
. Fashion show
s are events for designers to show off new and often extravagant designs.
Working conditions in the garments industry
transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid-20th century, garment
workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced
clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops
, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries
, clothes made in industrialized nation
s may also be manufactured similarly.
Coalitions of NGO
s, designers (including Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel
, eVocal, and Edun) and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign
(CCC) and the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights
as well as textile and clothing trade unions
have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers.
production to low wage countries like Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka
became possible when the Multi Fibre Agreement
(MFA) was abolished. The MFA, which placed quotas on textiles imports, was deemed a protectionist
measure. Although many countries recognize treaties like the International Labour Organization
, which attempt to set standards for worker safety and rights, many countries have made exceptions to certain parts of the treaties or failed to thoroughly enforce them. India for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty.
The production of textiles
has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations, providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to millions of people.
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA
, along with other animal rights
and animal liberation
groups have called attention to fur farming
and other practices they consider cruel.
Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses its aesthetics and functionality (as when buttons
fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zipper
Often, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Some materials present problems. Cleaning leather is difficult, and bark cloth (tapa) cannot be washed without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but materials like these inevitably age.
However, most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered
and mended (patching, darning
, but compare felt
Laundry, ironing, storage
Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machine
s and dry cleaning
(dissolving dirt in solvents
other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing
fabrics for hygiene
Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed
before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirt
s and suits
). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. Much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle, and do not require ironing. Some clothing is permanent press
, having been treated with a coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene
) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing. Excess lint or debris may end up on the clothing in between launderings. In such cases, a lint remover
may be useful.
Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung on clothes hanger
s or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores.
Certain types of insects and larvae feed on clothing and textiles, such as the black carpet beetle
and clothing moths
. To deter such pests, clothes may be stored in cedar-lined closets or chests, or placed in drawers or containers with materials having pest repellent properties, such as lavender
s. Airtight containers (such as sealed, heavy-duty plastic bags) may also deter insect pest damage to clothing materials.
A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde
, which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in 2008 the U.S. Government Accountability Office
tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants. In 1999, a study of the effect of washing on the formaldehyde levels found that after 6 months after washing, 7 of 27 shirts had levels in excess of 75 ppm, which is a safe limit for direct skin exposure.
When the raw material – cloth – was worth more than labor, it made sense to expend labor in saving it. In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor
could mend rips with thread raveled from hem
s and seam edges so skillfully that the tear was practically invisible. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the labor required to repair it. Many people buy a new piece of clothing rather than spend time mending. The thrifty still replace zipper
s and buttons
and sew up ripped hems.
Used, unwearable clothing can be repurposed for quilt
s, and many other household uses. Neutral colored or undyed cellulose
fibers can be recycled into paper
. In Western societies, used clothing is often thrown out or donated to charity (such as through a clothing bin
). It is also sold to consignment shop
s, dress agencies, flea market
s, and in online auction
s. Used clothing is also often collected on an industrial scale to be sorted and shipped for re-use in poorer countries. Globally, used clothes are worth $4 billion with the US as the leading exporter at $575 million.
Synthetics, which come primarily from petrochemicals, are not renewable or biodegradable.
Excess inventory of clothing is sometimes destroyed to preserve brand value.
EU Member States import, in 2018 €166 billion of clothes; 51% come from outside the EU €84 billion.
EU member states exported €116 billion of clothes in 2018, including 77% to other EU member states.
* Children's clothing
* Clothing fetish
* Timeline of requisite dress in Western civilization
* List of iconic dresses
* Dress code
* Western dress
* (see especially sections 5 – 'Clothing' – & 6 – 'Protective clothing').
Dents Glove Museum
International Textile and Apparel Association
Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing
by Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking (.PDF
Cornell Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition, History (HEARTH)