Corpus linguistics is the study of language
as a language is expressed in its text corpus
(plural ''corpora''), its body of "real world" text. Corpus linguistics proposes that reliable language analysis is more feasible with corpora collected in the field in its natural context ("realia"), and with minimal experimental interference.
The text-corpus method is a digestive approach that derives a set of abstract rules that govern a natural language
from texts in that language, and explores how that language relates to other languages. The derivation of corpora from source texts was first done manually, but now it is automated.
Corpora have not only been used for linguistics research, they have also been used to compile dictionaries
(starting with ''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
'' in 1969) and grammar guides, such as ''A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
'', published in 1985.
Experts in the field have differing views about the annotation of a corpus. These views range from John McHardy Sinclair
, who advocates minimal annotation so texts speak for themselves, to the Survey of English Usage
team (University College, London
), who advocate annotation as allowing greater linguistic understanding through rigorous recording.
Some of the earliest efforts at grammatical description were based at least in part on corpora of particular religious or cultural significance. For example, Prātiśākhya
literature described the sound patterns of Sanskrit
as found in the Vedas
's grammar of classical Sanskrit
was based at least in part on analysis of that same corpus. Similarly, the early Arabic grammarians
paid particular attention to the language of the Quran
. In the Western European tradition, scholars prepared concordances
to allow detailed study of the language of the Bible and other canonical texts.
A landmark in modern corpus linguistics was the publication of ''Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English'' in 1967. Written by Henry Kučera
and W. Nelson Francis
, the work was based on an analysis of the Brown Corpus
, which was a contemporary compilation of about a million American English words, carefully selected from a wide variety of sources. Kučera and Francis subjected the Brown Corpus to a variety of computational analyses and then combined elements of linguistics, language teaching, psychology
, statistics, and sociology
to create a rich and variegated opus. A further key publication was Randolph Quirk
's "Towards a description of English Usage" in 1960 in which he introduced the Survey of English Usage
Shortly thereafter, Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin
approached Kučera to supply a million-word, three-line citation base for its new ''American Heritage Dictionary
'', the first dictionary
compiled using corpus linguistics. The ''AHD'' took the innovative step of combining prescriptive elements (how language ''should'' be used) with descriptive information (how it actually ''is'' used).
Other publishers followed suit. The British publisher Collins' COBUILD monolingual learner's dictionary
, designed for users learning English as a foreign language
, was compiled using the Bank of English
. The Survey of English Usage
Corpus was used in the development of one of the most important Corpus-based Grammars, which was written by Quirk ''et al.'' and published in 1985 as ''A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language''.
The Brown Corpus
has also spawned a number of similarly structured corpora: the LOB Corpus
(1960s British English
), Kolhapur (Indian English
), Wellington (New Zealand English
), Australian Corpus of English (Australian English
), the Frown Corpus (early 1990s American English
), and the FLOB Corpus (1990s British English). Other corpora represent many languages, varieties and modes, and include the International Corpus of English
, and the British National Corpus
, a 100 million word collection of a range of spoken and written texts, created in the 1990s by a consortium of publishers, universities (Oxford
) and the British Library
. For contemporary American English, work has stalled on the American National Corpus
, but the 400+ million word Corpus of Contemporary American English
(1990–present) is now available through a web interface.
The first computerized corpus of transcribed spoken language was constructed in 1971 by the Montreal French Project, containing one million words, which inspired Shana Poplack
's much larger corpus of spoken French in the Ottawa-Hull area.
In the 1990s, many of the notable early successes on statistical methods in natural-language programming (NLP) occurred in the field of machine translation
, due especially to work at IBM Research. These systems were able to take advantage of existing multilingual textual corpora
that had been produced by the Parliament of Canada
and the European Union
as a result of laws calling for the translation of all governmental proceedings into all official languages of the corresponding systems of government.
There are corpora in non-European languages as well. For example, the National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics in Japan has built a number ocorpora of spoken and written Japanese
Ancient languages corpora
Besides these corpora of living languages, computerized corpora have also been made of collections of texts in ancient languages. An example is the Andersen
-Forbes database of the Hebrew Bible, developed since the 1970s, in which every clause is parsed using graphs representing up to seven levels of syntax, and every segment tagged with seven fields of information. The Quranic Arabic Corpus
is an annotated corpus for the Classical Arabic language of the Quran
. This is a recent project with multiple layers of annotation including morphological segmentation, part-of-speech tagging
, and syntactic analysis using dependency grammar.
Corpora from specific fields
Besides pure linguistic inquiry, researchers had begun to apply corpus linguistics to other academic and professional fields, such as the emerging sub-discipline of law and corpus linguistics
, which seeks to understand legal texts using corpus data and tools.
Corpus linguistics has generated a number of research methods, which attempt to trace a path from data to theory. Wallis and Nelson (2001) first introduced what they called the 3A perspective: Annotation, Abstraction and Analysis.
* Annotation consists of the application of a scheme to texts. Annotations may include structural markup, part-of-speech
, and numerous other representations.
* Abstraction consists of the translation (mapping) of terms in the scheme to terms in a theoretically motivated model or dataset. Abstraction typically includes linguist-directed search but may include e.g., rule-learning for parsers.
* Analysis consists of statistically probing, manipulating and generalising from the dataset. Analysis might include statistical evaluations, optimisation of rule-bases or knowledge discovery methods.
Most lexical corpora today are part-of-speech-tagged (POS-tagged). However even corpus linguists who work with 'unannotated plain text' inevitably apply some method to isolate salient terms. In such situations annotation and abstraction are combined in a lexical search.
The advantage of publishing an annotated corpus is that other users can then perform experiments on the corpus (through corpus manager
s). Linguists with other interests and differing perspectives than the originators' can exploit this work. By sharing data, corpus linguists are able to treat the corpus as a locus of linguistic debate and further study.
* ''A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English
* Collostructional analysis
* European Language Resource Association
* Keyword (linguistics)
* Linguistic Data Consortium
* List of text corpora
* Machine translation
* Natural Language Toolkit
* Pattern grammar
* Search engines
: they access the "web corpus"
* Semantic prosody
* Speech corpus
* Text corpus
* Translation memory
Notes and references
* Biber, D., Conrad, S., Reppen R. ''Corpus Linguistics, Investigating Language Structure and Use'', Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
* McCarthy, D., and Sampson G. ''Corpus Linguistics: Readings in a Widening Discipline'', Continuum, 2005.
* Facchinetti, R. ''Theoretical Description and Practical Applications of Linguistic Corpora''. Verona: QuiEdit, 2007
* Facchinetti, R. (ed.) ''Corpus Linguistics 25 Years on''. New York/Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007
* Facchinetti, R. and Rissanen M. (eds.) ''Corpus-based Studies of Diachronic English''. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006
* Lenders, W. ''Computational lexicography and corpus linguistics until ca. 1970/1980'', in: Gouws, R. H., Heid, U., Schweickard, W., Wiegand, H. E. (eds.) ''Dictionaries - An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. Supplementary Volume: Recent Developments with Focus on Electronic and Computational Lexicography''. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013
* Fuß, Eric et al. (Eds.): Grammar and Corpora 2016, Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, 2018. digital open access
* Stefanowitsch A. 2020. Corpus linguistics: A guide to the methodology. Berlin: Language Science Press. , Open Access https://langsci-press.org/catalog/book/148.
Book series in this field include:
* Language and Computers (Brill)
Studies in Corpus Linguistics (John Benjamins)English Corpus Linguistics (Peter Lang)
*Corpus and Discourse (Bloomsbury)
There are several international peer-reviewed journals dedicated to corpus linguistics, for example:
* Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory
* International Journal of Corpus Linguistics
Language Resources and Evaluation Journal
supported by thEuropean Language Resources AssociationResearch in Corpus Linguistics
supported by thSpanish Association for Corpus Linguistics
* ttps://web.archive.org/web/20060113235630/http://torvald.aksis.uib.no/corpora/ Corpora discussion listFreely-available, web-based corpora (100 million – 400 million words each): American (COCA, COHA), British (BNC), TIME, Spanish, PortuguesePrzemek Kaszubski's list of referencesAskOxford.com
''the composition and use of the Oxford Corpus''
DMCBC.com Datum Multilanguage Corpora Based on chinese free sample downloadCorpus4u Community
a Chinese online forum for corpus linguistics
McEnery and Wilson's Corpus Linguistics PageCorpus Linguistics with R mailing listResearch and Development Unit for English StudiesSurvey of English UsageThe Centre for Corpus Linguistics at Birmingham UniversityTools for Corpus Linguistics (annotated list)Gateway to Corpus Linguistics on the Internet
an annotated guide to corpus resources on the web
Biomedical corporaLinguistic Data Consortium
a major distributor of corpora
Penn Parsed Corpora of Historical EnglishCorsis
(formerly Tenka Text) an open-source
ed) corpus analysis tool written in C#
anFuzzy Tree FragmentsDiscussion grouptext mining
Google+ discussion community on corpus linguistics for language learning and teaching
* A corpus linguistics related conference MAG 2017: You can find some information and events related tMetadiscourse Across Genres by visiting MAG 2017 websiteCorpus of Political Speeches
Free access to political speeches by American and Chinese politicians, developed by Hong Kong Baptist University Library
LightTag -Text Annotation Tool
A text annotation tool for machine learning corpus focused on team management
*LIVAC Synchronous Corpus