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Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500

Republic of Croatia

Republika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[a]
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")
Location of Croatia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of Croatia (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the – in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000
Official languagesCroatian[b]
Writing systemLatin[c]
Ethnic groups
(2011[4])
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Zoran Milanović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
LegislatureSabor
Establishment
• Duchy
9th century
• Kingdom
925
1102
• Joined Habsburg Monarchy
1 January 1527
• Secession from
Austria-Hungary
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 June 1991
12 November 1995
1 July 2013
Area
• Total
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)
• Water (%)
1.09
Population
• 2020 estimate
4,058,165[5] (128th)
• 2011 census
4,284,889[6]
• Density
73/km2 (189.1/sq mi) (109th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$117.928 billion[7] (81st)
• Per capita
$29,207[7] (55th)
/krˈʃə/ (About this soundlisten), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, (About this soundlisten)),[d] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and it shares a maritime border with Italy. Its capital and largest city Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.07 million.

The Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of Duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. A resistance movement led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence and the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration.

A sovereign state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, and the World Trade Organization and is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks very high on the Human Development Index. The economy is dominated by the service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Etymology

The Tanais Tablet containing the word Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos).

The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-,[11] the root word being a 3rd-century Scytho-Sarmatian form attested in the Tanais Tablets as Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos, alternate forms comprise Khoróatos and Khoroúathos).[11]

The origin of the name is uncertain but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.The Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of Duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. A resistance movement led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence and the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration.

A sovereign state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, and the World Trade Organization and is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks very high on the Human Development Index. The economy is dominated by the service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-,[11] the root word being a 3rd-century Scytho-Sarmatian form attested in the Tanais Tablets as Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos, alternate forms comprise Khoróatos and Khoroúathos).[11]

The origin of the name is uncertain but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.[12] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of the variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").[13]

The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim.[14] Although was archaeologically confirmed that the ethnonym Croatorum is mentioned in a church inscription found in Bijaći near Trogir dated to the end of the 8th or early 9th century,[15] the presumably oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.[16]

The Baška tablet, the oldest evidence of the Glagolitic script

History

Prehistory

The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina.[17] Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country.[18] The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures.[19][20] The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.[21]

Antiquity

Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.[12] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of the variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").[13]

The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim.[14] Although was archaeologically confirmed that the ethnonym Croatorum is mentioned in a church inscription found in Bijaći near Trogir dated to the end of the 8th or early 9th century,[15] the presumably oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.[16]

The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina.[17] Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country.[18] The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures.[19][20] The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.[21]

Antiquity

Croatian Apoxyomenos, Ancient Greek statue, 2nd or 1st century BC