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''Doab'' () is a term used in South Asia Quote: "Originally and chiefly in South Asia: (the name of) a strip or narrow tract of land between two rivers; spec. (with) the area between the rivers Ganges and Jumna in northern India." for the tract Quote: "confluence, land between two rivers, used in India of the tongue of land between the Ganges and Jumna, and of similar tracts in the Punjab, etc., lit. ‘two waters’ " of land lying between two confluent rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. Quote: " a tract of land between two rivers : interfluve" In the ''Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary'', R. S. McGregor defines it as from Persian ''do-āb'' (, literally "two odiesof water") "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Yamuna)."


The Doab


''The Doab'' designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad. It is also called as ''Ganges-Yamuna Doab'' or ''Ganga Doab''. The region has an area of about 23,360 square miles (60,500 square km); it is approximately in length and in width.Ganges-Yamuna Doab
Encyclopedia Britannica.
The British raj divided the ''Doab'' into three administrative districts, viz., Upper Doab (Meerut), Middle Doab (Agra) and Lower Doab (Allahabad). Currently the following states and districts form part of ''The Doab'':

Upper Doab

*Uttarakhand: Dehradun and Haridwar *Uttar Pradesh: Saharanpur, Shamli, Muzaffarnagar, Baghpat, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Gautam Buddh Nagar and Bulandshahr *Delhi

Central or Middle Doab

Etah, Kasganj, Aligarh, Agra, Hathras, Firozabad, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Mainpuri, Etawah, Auraiya and Mathura. Mathura is in the trans-Yamuna region of Braj.

Lower Doab

Kanpur, Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad.

The Punjab Doabs

Each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India has a distinct name, said to have been coined by Raja Todar Mal, a minister of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The names (except for "Sindh Sagar") are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, "Jech" () = ''Jehlam'' (, "Jhelum") + ''Ch''anāb (, "Chenab"). The names are (from west to east):

Sindh Sagar Doab

The Sindh Sagar Doab lies between the Indus and Jhelum rivers.

Jech Doabs

The Jech Doab (also ''Chaj Doab'') (small portion of the Jech Doab is Majha) lies between the Jhelum and the Chenab rivers.

Rechna Doabs

The Rechna Doab (considerable portion of the Rechna Doab is Majha) lies between the Chenab and the Ravi rivers.

Bari Doabs

The Bari Doab (considerable portion of the Bari Doab is MajhaKakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (2007-01-01). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. . Retrieved 12 June 2010.) lies between the Ravi and the Beas rivers.

Bist Doab

The Bist Doab (or Doaba) - between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers.

Other doabs



Malwa Doab

The rivers flowing through the Malwa region, covering the current states of Madhya Pradesh and parts of north-eastern Rajasthan, also have doab regions such as the Upper Malwa doab and Lower Malwa doab.

Raichur Doab

The Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra River, named for the town of Raichur.


Khadir, bangar, barani, nali and bagar


Since North India and Pakistan are coursed by a multiplicity of Himalayan rivers that divide the plains into ''doabs'' (i.e. regions between two rivers), the Indo-Gangetic plains consist of alternating regions of river, ''khadir'' and ''bangar''. The regions of the ''doabs'' near the rivers consist of low-lying, floodplains, but usually very fertile ''khadir'' and the higher-lying land away from the rivers consist of ''bangar'', less prone to flooding but also less fertile on average.Damage to Yamuna Khadar, Ravi Shankar's Art of Living Responsible: NGTKhas Khabar
7 Dec 2017.
Khadir is also called Nali or Naili, specially in northern Haryana the fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in that gets flooded during the rains."The imperial gazeteers of India, 1908"
British Raj, page 288.]
Within bangar area, the Barani is any low rain area where the rain-fed dry farming is practiced, which nowadays are dependent on the tubewells for irrigation. Bagar tract, an example of barani land, is the dry sandy tract of land on the border of Rajasthan state adjoining the states of Haryana and Punjab.E. Walter Coward, 1980
"Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from the social sciences"
Cornell University press, .
Nahri is any canal-irrigated land, for example, the ''Rangoi tract'' which is an area irrigated by the ''Rangoi channel/canal'' made for the purpose of carrying flood waters of Ghagghar river to dry areas.1987
"gazetteer of India: Hisar District"
, page 7.
1987
"Gazeteers of Hisar district, 1987"
, Government of Haryana, page 162.]
Historically, villages in the ''doabs'' have been officially classified as ''khadir'', ''khadir-bangar'' (i.e. mixed) or ''bangar'' for many centuries and different agricultural tax rates applied based on a tiered land-productivity scale.

See also

* Interamnia (disambiguation)|Interamnia, an ancient Latin placename, meaning "between rivers"


Notes




References

* {{Historical regions of North India|state=expanded Category:Geography of Uttar Pradesh Category:Geography of Madhya Pradesh Category:Geography of Rajasthan Category:Geography of Haryana Category:Geography of Punjab, India Category:Regions of Haryana Category:Regions of Punjab, India Category:Regions of Rajasthan Category:Regions of Madhya Pradesh Category:Regions of Uttar Pradesh Category:Hindi words and phrases Category:Natural regions