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Eurasian
Total population
Official population numbers are unknown;
United States: 1,623,234 (2010)[1]
England and Wales: 341,727 (2011)[2]
Netherlands: 369,661 (2015)[3]
Regions with significant populations
 United States[4]
 Netherlands[5]
 United Kingdom[1]
 Hong Kong[6]
 Philippines[7]
 Singapore[8]
 Malaysia[9]
 Macau[10]

A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.

Overview

The term Eurasian was first coined in mid-nineteenth century British India. The term was originally used to refer to those who are now known as Anglo-Indians, p

The term Eurasian was first coined in mid-nineteenth century British India. The term was originally used to refer to those who are now known as Anglo-Indians, people of mixed British and Indian descent.[12] In addition to British many were also of mixed Portuguese, Dutch, Irish or, more rarely, French descent. The term has been used in anthropological literature since the 1960s.[13]

Specific groups

Central Asia

Genetics of Turkmens indicates a mixture of East Eurasian and West Eurasian populations.

Historically, Central Asia has been a "melting pot" of West Eurasian and East Eurasian peoples, leading to high genetic admixture and diversity.[14] Physical and genetic analyses of ancient remains have concluded that – while the Scythians, including those in the eastern Pazyryk region – possessed predominantly features found (among others) in Europoids, mixed Eurasian phenotypes were also frequently present, suggesting that the Scythians as a whole were descended in part from East Eurasian populations.[15]

The Xiongnu were nomadic warriors who invaded China and Central Asia. They were predominantly Mongoloid, known from their skeletal remains and artifacts. Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid.[16] Russian and Chinese anthropological and craniofacial studies show that the Xiongnu were physically very heterogeneous, with six different population clusters showing different degrees of Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical traits.[17] A majority (89%) of the Xiongnu mtDNA sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups, and nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups.[18] This finding indicates that contact between European and Asian populations preceded the start of Xiongnu culture, and confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC Scytho-Siberian population (Clisson et al. 2002).

Anthropologist SA Pletnev studied a group of burials of Kipchaks in the Volga region and found them to have Caucasoid features with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, with physical characteristics such as a flat face and distinctly protruding nose.[19] They were nomadic people that, together with the Cumans, ruled areas stretching from Kazakhstan through Caucasus to Eastern Europe.

Russia's Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu. His father was Tuvan, while his mother was Russian.

The Hunnic invaders of Europe were also of mixed origins. Hungarian archaeologist István Bóna argues that most European Huns were of Caucasoid ancestry and that less than 20–25% were of Mongoloid stock.[20] According to the Hungarian anthropologist Pál Lipták (1955) he believed Turanid race was most common among the Huns. He classified Turanid as a Caucasoid type with significant Mongoloid admixture, arising from the mixture of the Andronovo type of Europoid features and the Oriental (Mongoloid).[21]

Central Asia has been a "melting pot" of West Eurasian and East Eurasian peoples, leading to high genetic admixture and diversity.[14] Physical and genetic analyses of ancient remains have concluded that – while the Scythians, including those in the eastern Pazyryk region – possessed predominantly features found (among others) in Europoids, mixed Eurasian phenotypes were also frequently present, suggesting that the Scythians as a whole were descended in part from East Eurasian populations.[15]

The Xiongnu were nomadic warriors who invaded China and Central Asia. They were predominantly Mongoloid, known from their skeletal remains and artifacts. Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid.[16] Russian and Chinese anthropological and craniofacial studies show that the Xiongnu were physically very heterogeneous, with six different population clusters showing different degrees of Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical traits.[17] A majority (89%) of the Xiongnu mtDNA sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups, and nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups.[18] This finding indicates that contact between European and Asian populations preceded the start of Xiongnu culture, and confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC Scytho-Siberian population (Clisson et al. 2002).

Anthropologist SA Pletnev studied a group of burials of Kipchaks in the Volga region and found them to have Caucasoid features with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, with physical characteristics such as a flat face and distinctly protruding nose.[19] They were nomadic people that, together with the Xiongnu were nomadic warriors who invaded China and Central Asia. They were predominantly Mongoloid, known from their skeletal remains and artifacts. Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid.[16] Russian and Chinese anthropological and craniofacial studies show that the Xiongnu were physically very heterogeneous, with six different population clusters showing different degrees of Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical traits.[17] A majority (89%) of the Xiongnu mtDNA sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups, and nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups.[18] This finding indicates that contact between European and Asian populations preceded the start of Xiongnu culture, and confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC Scytho-Siberian population (Clisson et al. 2002).

Anthropologist SA Pletnev studied a group of burials of Kipchaks in the Volga region and found them to have Caucasoid features with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, with physical characteristics such as a flat face and distinctly protruding nose.[19] They were nomadic people that, together with the Cumans, ruled areas stretching from Kazakhstan through Caucasus to Eastern Europe.

The Hunnic invaders of Europe were also of mixed origins. Hungarian archaeologist István Bóna argues that most European Huns were of Caucasoid ancestry and that less than 20–25% were of Mongoloid stock.[20] According to the Hungarian anthropologist Pál Lipták (1955) he believed Turanid race was most common among the Huns. He classified Turanid as a Caucasoid type with significant Mongoloid admixture, arising from the mixture of the Andronovo type of Europoid features and the Oriental (Mongoloid).[21]

The Eurasian Avars were group of sixth-century nomadic warriors that came from Northern Central Asia who ruled in what is today Central Europe. Anthr

The Eurasian Avars were group of sixth-century nomadic warriors that came from Northern Central Asia who ruled in what is today Central Europe. Anthropological research has revealed few skeletons with Mongoloid-type features, although there was continuing cultural influence from the Eurasian nomadic steppe. The early Avar anthropological material was said to be mostly Europoid in the seventh century according to Pál Lipták, while grave-goods indicated Middle and Central Asian parallels. Mongoloid and Euro-Mongoloid types compose about one-third of the total population of the Avar graves of the eighth century with the late Avar Period showing more hybridization resulting in higher frequencies of Europo-Mongolids.[22]

Each year, the Huns [Avars] came to the Slavs, to spend the winter with them; then they took the wives and daughters of the Slavs and slept with them, and among the other mistreatments [already mentioned] the Slavs were also forced to pay levies to the Huns. But the sons of the Huns, who were [then] raised with the wives and daughters of these Wends [Slavs] could not finally endure this oppression anymore and refused obedience to the Huns and began, as already mentioned, a rebellion.

— Chronicle of Fredegar, Book IV, Section 48, written circa 642

The Seljuk Empire wh

The Seljuk Empire which ruled from Central Asia, Middle East to modern Turkey, their descendants are the Iranian Turkmen and Afghan Turkmen and are mixture of East Eurasian and West Eurasian.

Kipchaks, the Cuman invaders of Europe were also of mixed anthropological origins. Excavations in Csengele, Hungary, have revealed normatively East Asian and European traits. Five of the six skeletons that were complete enough for anthropometric analysis appeared Asian rather than European.[23]

Many Eurasian ethnic groups arose during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The ruling Mongol elites of the Mongol successor states began a process of assimilation with the non-Mongol populations that they ruled over. The Golden Horde which ruled eastern Europe resulted in a assmilation and mixture of Mongols, Turkic, Finno-Ugrians, Sarmato-Scythians, Slavs, and people from the Caucasus, among others (whether Muslim or not).[24] Partial Mongol descendants of people from Central Asia and North Caucasus, such as the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Nogais, also created many Eurasian ethnic groups under the empires they established (for example, the Timurid Empire, Mughal Empire, Kazakh Khanate, and Nogai Horde), which invaded or covered vast areas that are parts of modern Russia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia.

Southeast Asia

Many Eurasian ethnic groups arose during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The ruling Mongol elites of the Mongol successor states began a process of assimilation with the non-Mongol populations that they ruled over. The Golden Horde which ruled eastern Europe resulted in a assmilation and mixture of Mongols, Turkic, Finno-Ugrians, Sarmato-Scythians, Slavs, and people from the Caucasus, among others (whether Muslim or not).[24] Partial Mongol descendants of people from Central Asia and North Caucasus, such as the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Nogais, also created many Eurasian ethnic groups under the empires they established (for example, the Timurid Empire, Mughal Empire, Kazakh Khanate, and Nogai Horde), which invaded or covered vast areas that are parts of modern Russia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia.

European colonization of vast swathes of Southeast Asia led to the burgeoning of Eurasian populations, particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Vietnam and the Philippines. The majority of Eurasians in Southeast Asia formed a separate community from the indigenous peoples and the European colonizers, and served as middlemen between the two. Post-colonial Eurasians can be found in practically every country in Southeast Asia, most especially in the Philippines due to the 333 years of colonization by Spain, 4 years of British settlement and 49 years of American occupation which gives the country the longest unstopping 382 years of continuously European exposure in Southeast Asia. While Burma was colonized by the British for 124 years, the French colonized Indochina for 67 years, the British colonized Malaysia for 120 years and Dutch colonized Indonesia for 149 years after Portugal.

Cambodia

In the last official census in French Indochina in 1946, there were 45,000 Europeans in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. One-fifth were Eurasian.[25]

Jean-François Izzi, a French banker of Italian origin, was the father of the Queen Mother of Cambodia, Norodom Monineath.[26] The son of Norodom Monineath is the reigning King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihamoni.

Indonesi

In the last official census in French Indochina in 1946, there were 45,000 Europeans in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. One-fifth were Eurasian.[25]

Jean-François Izzi, a French banker of Italian origin, was the father of the Queen Mother of Cambodia, Norodom Monineath.[26]Jean-François Izzi, a French banker of Italian origin, was the father of the Queen Mother of Cambodia, Norodom Monineath.[26] The son of Norodom Monineath is the reigning King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihamoni.

Studio portrait of an Indo-European family, Dutch East Indies (1890–1910)

  • Studio portrait of the family Engelenburg Banjoewangi (1919)

  • Mrs. Mertens in sarong and kabaja, Java (c. 1888)

  • Mrs. Mertens in sarong and kabaja, Java (c. 1888)

  • Dutch Totok father with Indo wife and children (1922)

  • Dutch-Indonesian General Gerardus Johannes Berenschot

  • Dutch-German-Indonesian nationalist and politician of Indo descent Ernest Douwes Dekker

  • Pierre Tendean

  • Dutch-Indonesian poet and author Edgar du Perron

  • Dutch-Indonesian novelist Maria Dermoût

  • German-Indonesian actor and tech entrepreneur Christian Sugiono

  • Dutch-Jewish-Indonesian rock musician, songwriter, arranger,

    Dutch-Jewish-Indonesian rock musician, songwriter, arranger, and producer Ahmad Dhani

  • Dutch-Arab-Indonesian footballer Irfan Bachdim

  • Dutch-Indonesian drag performer Sutan Amrull

  • Barack Obama's half sister Maya Soetoro-Ng (Indonesian-American)

  • The Eurasian community from Indonesia developed over a period of 400 years, it began with a mostly Portuguese Indonesian ancestry and ended with a dominant Dutch-Indonesian ancestry after the arrival of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia in 1603 and near continuous Dutch rule until the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II. The Eurasian community from Indonesia developed over a period of 400 years, it began with a mostly Portuguese Indonesian ancestry and ended with a dominant Dutch-Indonesian ancestry after the arrival of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia in 1603 and near continuous Dutch rule until the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II.

    Indo is a term for Europeans

    Indo is a term for Europeans, Asians, and Eurasian people who were a migrant population that associated themselves with and experienced the colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia that became Indonesia after World War II.[27][28][29][30] It was used to describe people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, or it was a term used in the Dutch East Indies to apply to Europeans who had partial Asian ancestry.[30][31][32][33][34] The European ancestry of these people was predominantly Dutch, and also Portuguese, British, French, Belgian, German, and others.[35]

    Other terms used were Indos, Dutch Indonesians, Eurasians,[36] Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch,[30] and Dutch-Indos.[37][38][39][40][41]

    There are over 29,000 Eurasians living in Malaysia, the vast majority of whom are of Portuguese descent.[42]

    In East Malaysia, the exact number of Eurasians are unknown. Recent DNA studies by Stanford found that 7.8% of samples from Kota Kinabalu have European chromosomes.[43]

    Philippines

    Eurasians are collectively called Mestizos in the Philippines. The vast majority are descendants of Spanish, Latino and American settlers who intermarried with people of indigenous Filipino descent. Aside from the more common Spanish, Latino and American mestizos, there are also Eurasians in the Philippines who have ancestries from various European countries or Australia. Significant intermarriage between Filipinos and European Americans has occurred since the United States colonial period up to the present day, as the US had numerous people stationed there at military bases.

    Most Eurasians of Spanish or Latino descent own business conglomer

    Eurasians are collectively called Mestizos in the Philippines. The vast majority are descendants of Spanish, Latino and American settlers who intermarried with people of indigenous Filipino descent. Aside from the more common Spanish, Latino and American mestizos, there are also Eurasians in the Philippines who have ancestries from various European countries or Australia. Significant intermarriage between Filipinos and European Americans has occurred since the United States colonial period up to the present day, as the US had numerous people stationed there at military bases.

    Most Eurasians of Spanish or

    Most Eurasians of Spanish or Latino descent own business conglomerates in the real estate, agriculture, and utilities sector, whereas Eurasians of White American descent are largely in the entertainment industry which are one of the biggest industries in the Philippines working as reporters, writers, producers, directors, models, actors and actresses as modern Philippine mass media and entertainment industry was pioneered during the American colonization of the Philippines by the Americans. Many of them also works in offices and call centers; The Philippines being the call center capital of the world.[citation needed]The actual number of Eurasians in the Philippines cannot be ascertained due to lack of surveys, although Spanish censuses record that as much as one third of the inhabitants of the island of Luzon possess varying degrees of Spanish or Latino admixture.

    As opposed to the policies of other colonial powers such as the British or the Dutch, the Spanish colonies were devoid of any anti-miscegenation laws. Moreover, the Catholic Church not only never banned interracial marriage, but it even encouraged it.

    The Spanish implemented incentives to deliberately entangle the various races together in order to stop rebellion:[44][45][46]It is needful to encourage public instruction in all ways possible, permit newspapers subject to a liberal censure, to establish in Manila a college of medicine, surgery, and pharmacy: in order to break down the barriers that divide the races, and amalgamate them all into one. For that purpose, the Spaniards of the country, the Chinese mestizos, and the Filipinos shall be admitted with perfect equality as cadets of the military corps; the personal-service tax shall be abolished, or an equal and general tax shall be imposed, to which all the Spaniards shall be subject. This last plan appears to me more advisable, as the poll-tax is already established, and it is not opportune to make a trial of new taxes when it is a question of allowing the country to be governed by itself. Since the annual tribute is unequal, the average shall be taken and shall be fixed, consequently, at fifteen or sixteen reals per whole tribute, or perhaps one peso fuerte annually from each adult tributary person. This regulation will produce an increase in the revenue of 200,000 or 300,000 pesos fuertes, and this sum shall be set aside to give the impulse for the amalgamation of the races, favoring crossed marriages by means of dowries granted to the single women in the following manner. To a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Filipino shall be given 100 pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, Ioo pesos; to a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Spaniard, 1,000 pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, 2,000 pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Spaniard, 2,000 pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Filipino chief, 3,000 or 4,000 pesos. Some mestizo and Filipino alcaldes-mayor of the provinces shall be appointed. It shall be ordered that when a Filipino chief goes to the house of a Spaniard, he shall seat himself as the latter's equal. In a word, by these and other means, the idea that they and the Castilians are two kinds of distinct races shall be erased from the minds of the natives, and the families shall become related by marriage in such manner that when free of the Castilian dominion should any exalted Filipinos try to expel or enslave our race, they would find it so interlaced with their own that their plan would be practically impossible.[47]

    The fluid nature of racial integration in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period was recorded by many travelers and public figures at the time, who were favorably impressed by the lack of racial discrimination, as compared to the situation in other European colonies.

    Among them was Sir John Bowring, Governor General of British Hong Kong and a well-seasoned traveler who had written several books about the different cultures in Asia, who described the situation as "admirable" during a visit to the Philippines in the 1870s.

    The lines separating entire classes and races, appeared to me less marked than in the Oriental colonies. I have seen on the same table, Spaniards, Mestizos (Chinos cristianos) and Indios, priests and military. There is no doubt that having one Religion forms great bonding. And more so to the eyes of one that has been observing the repulsion and differences due to race in many parts of Asia. And from one (like myself) who knows that race is the great divider of society, the admirable contrast and exception to racial discrimination so markedly presented by the people of the Philippines is indeed admirable.[48]

    Another foreign witness was English engineer, Frederic H. Sawyer, who had spent most of his life in different parts of Asia and lived in Luzon for fourteen years. His impression was that as far as racial integration and harmony was concerned, the situation in the Philippines was not equaled by any other colonial power:

    <

    "... Spaniards and natives lived together in great harmony, and do not know where I could find a colony in which Europeans mixes as much socially with the natives.

    Not in Jav

    Not in Java, where a native of position must dismount to salute the humblest Dutchman.

    Not in British India, where the Englishwoman has now made the gulf between British and native into a bottomless pit."[49]

    As of today European genes are spread throughout the country in great but specifically unknown scale, together with Chinese genes and Indian, Arabic and Japanese genes, that evolved modern Filipinos in a distinctive Austronesian path. In a research done by Dr. Michael Purugganan, NYU Dean of Science in 2013, he concluded that Filipinos today are the conclusion of an Austronesian's evolutionary result of almost 500 years of European (Hispanic/British/Americans) settling with the Natives and other migrant Asians in the Islands.

    Joseph Schooling, is a Singaporean national swimmer.

  • Eunice Olsen, is an actress, host, communications trainer, producer and business woman.

  • Eunice Olsen, is an actress, host, communications trainer, producer and business woman.

  • Christopher de Souza, is a politician and lawyer.

  • Singaporean Eurasians of European ancestry traces to emigrants of countries that span the length and breadth of Europe, although Eurasian migrants to Singapore in the 19th century came largely from other European colonies in Asia as well as Europe itself. When the European colonisation of Singapore began, the colonisers brought into being a new ethnic group known historically and generally as the Eurasians.[50] Early European coloni

    Singaporean Eurasians of European ancestry traces to emigrants of countries that span the length and breadth of Europe, although Eurasian migrants to Singapore in the 19th century came largely from other European colonies in Asia as well as Europe itself. When the European colonisation of Singapore began, the colonisers brought into being a new ethnic group known historically and generally as the Eurasians.[50] Early European colonisers were not accompanied by their womenfolk on the perilous journey to Asia. Consequently, many married the local women of these lands, or formed liaisons with them. Today, Singaporeans of Eurasian descent make up about 0.4% of the Singaporean population, with 16,900 individuals living in Singapore in 2015.[51][52]

    Prince Chula Chakrabongse

  • Mario Maurer

  • In the mid-20th century, the number of luk khrueng increased dramatically in the period following World War II, with the increasing number of Western residents and visitors to the country. Many were the children of American servicemen who came to the country in the 1960s and the 1970s, when there were several large US military bases in the country because of the Vi

    In the mid-20th century, the number of luk khrueng increased dramatically in the period following World War II, with the increasing number of Western residents and visitors to the country. Many were the children of American servicemen who came to the country in the 1960s and the 1970s, when there were several large US military bases in the country because of the Vietnam War. While some of the servicemen formed lasting relationships with Thai women, some luk khrueng were the product of temporary relationships with "rented wives", or prostitutes, a fact that led to some discrimination in that era. Some Thais were also hostile because of the perceived lack of racial purity, but most were quite accepting.[53]

    Like certain other parts of

    Like certain other parts of Asia, luk khrueng have become popular in the entertainment and modelling industries and many have carved out prominent roles in the entertainment industry with their mixed Caucasian and Thai features which are deemed attractive in modern Thai culture.[54]

    In the last official census in French Indochina in 1946, there were 45,000 Europeans in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia – of which one-fifth were Eurasian.[25] Much of the business conducted with foreign men in Southeast Asia was done by the local women, who served engaged in both sexual and mercantile intercourse with foreign male traders. A Portuguese and Malay speaking Vietnamese woman who lived in Macau for an extensive period of time was the person who interpreted for the first diplomatic meeting between Cochin-China and a Dutch delegation. She served as an interpreter for three decades in the Cochin-China court with an old woman who had been married to three husbands; one Vietnamese and two Portuguese.[55][56][57] The cosmopolitan exchange was facilitated by the marriage of Vietnamese women to Portuguese merchants. Those Vietnamese woman were married to Portuguese men and lived in Macao which was how they became fluent in Malay and Portuguese.[58] Alexander Hamilton said that "The Tonquiners used to be very desirous of having a brood of Europeans in their country, for which reason the greatest nobles thought it no shame or disgrace to marry their daughters to English and Dutch seamen, for the time they were to stay in Tonquin, and often presented their sons-in-law pretty handsomely at their departure, especially if they left their wives with child; but adultery was dangerous to the husband, for they are well versed in the art of poisoning."[59]

    Vietnam saw a surge in its Eurasian population following the entry of the United States as an active combatant in the Vietnam War in 1965. Large numbers of white American soldiers were deployed in South Vietnam to support the country, and intermingling with local Vietnamese women was common. The resulting Eurasian children, known as Amerasians, were products of varying circumstances ranging from genuine long-term relationships and love affairs to prostitution and r

    Vietnam saw a surge in its Eurasian population following the entry of the United States as an active combatant in the Vietnam War in 1965. Large numbers of white American soldiers were deployed in South Vietnam to support the country, and intermingling with local Vietnamese women was common. The resulting Eurasian children, known as Amerasians, were products of varying circumstances ranging from genuine long-term relationships and love affairs to prostitution and rape. When the war was going against South Vietnam in the early 1970s, the gradual withdrawal of American troops during the Vietnamization process included many Vietnamese war brides and their Eurasian children. The situation led the United States Congress to enact the American Homecoming Act, granting preferential immigration status specifically to Eurasian children born to servicemen in Vietnam claimed by their fathers. The Eurasian children that remained in Vietnam, around 20,000, were typically from the worst circumstances, fatherless, and often ended up in orphanages as their mothers were incapable or uninterested in raising them. The North Vietnamese victory in 1975 saw greater stigma against Eurasian Vietnamese children, as the new government of reunified Vietnam was hostile to the United States and saw them as symbols of foreign occupation. The poor circumstances of the Amerasian children made them vulnerable to severe social and state-sponsored persecution.

    Robert Hotung

  • In 19th century Hong Kong, Eurasian or "half-caste" children were often stigmatised as symbols of 'moral degradation' and 'racial impurity' by both European and Chinese communities.[60] According to Chiu:

    To the European community, such children were the ‘tangible evidence of moral irregularity’, while to the Chinese community they embodied the shame and ‘evil’ of their marginalised mothers. Stewart has commented that, ‘The word "barbarian" on the lip of a Greek contained but an iota of the contempt which the Chinese entertain for suc

    In 19th century Hong Kong, Eurasian or "half-caste" children were often stigmatised as symbols of 'moral degradation' and 'racial impurity' by both European and Chinese communities.[60] According to Chiu:

    To the European

    To the European community, such children were the ‘tangible evidence of moral irregularity’, while to the Chinese community they embodied the shame and ‘evil’ of their marginalised mothers. Stewart has commented that, ‘The word "barbarian" on the lip of a Greek contained but an iota of the contempt which the Chinese entertain for such persons’.[60]

    In the 1890s Ernst Johann Eitel, a German missionary, controversially claimed that most "half-caste" people in Hong Kong were descended exclusively from Europeans having relationships with outcast groups such as the Tanka people. Carl Smith's study in the 1960s on "protected women" (the kept mistresses of foreigners) to an extent supports Eitel's theory. The Tanka were marginalised in Chinese society which consisted of the majority Puntis (Cantonese-speaking people). Custom precluded their intermarriage with the Cantonese and Hakka-speaking populations and they had limited opportunities of settlement on land. Consequently, the Tanka did not experience the same social pressures when dealing with Europeans. Eitel's theory, however, was criticised by Henry J. Lethbridge writing in the 1970s as a "myth" propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community.[61][62][63][64]

    Andrew and

    Andrew and Bushnell (2006) wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire and the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering towards foreign sailors. The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese; being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways. They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong.[65] The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered "outcasts" categorised low class.[66]

    Ordinary Chinese prostitutes were afraid of serving Westerners since they looked strange to them, while the Tanka prostitutes freely mingled with western men.[67] The Tanka assisted the Europeans with supplies and providing them with prostitutes.[68][69] Low class European men in Hong Kong easily formed relations with the Tanka prostitutes.[70] The profession of prostitution among the Tanka women led to them being hated by the Chinese both because they had sex with westerners and them being racially Tanka.[71]

    Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew (1845–1917) and Katharine Caroline Bushnell (1856–1946) wrote extensively about the position of women in the British Empire. Published in 1907, Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers, which examined the exploitation of Chinese women in Hong Kong under colonial rule, discussed the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering towards foreign sailors. The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese, being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways. They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong.[72] The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered as "outcasts".[73] Tanka women were ostracized from the Cantonese community, and were nicknamed "salt water girls" (ham shui mui) for their services as prostitutes to foreigners in Hong Kong.[74][75]

    Notable examples of Eurasian people from Hong Kong include Nancy Kwan, once a Hollywood sex symbol, born to a Cantonese father and English and Scottish mother, Bruce Lee, a martial artist icon born to a Cantonese father and a Eurasian mother, and Macao-born actress Isabella Leong, born to a Portuguese-English father and a Chinese mother. The Jewish Dutch man Charles Maurice Bosman[76] was the father of the brothers Sir Robert Hotung and Ho Fook who was the grandfather of Stanley Ho. The number of people who identified as "Mixed with one Chinese parent" according to the 2001 Hong Kong Census was 16,587, which had risen to 24,649 in 2011.[6]

    The early Macanese ethnic group was formed from Portuguese men with Malay, Japanese, Indian and Sinhalese women.[77][78] The Portuguese encouraged Cantonese migration to Macau, and most Macanese in Macau were formed from between Portuguese and Cantonese. In 1810, the total population of Macau was about 4033, of which 1172 were white men, 1830 were white women, 425 male slaves, and 606 female slaves. In 1830, the population increased to 4480 and the breakdown was 1,202 white men, 2149 white women, 350 male slaves and 779 female slaves. There is reason to speculate that large numbers of white women were involved in some forms of prostitution which would probably explain the abnormality in the ratio between men and women among the white population.[79] Majority of the early Cantonese-Portuguese intermarriages were between Portuguese men and women of Tanka origin, who were considered the lowest class of people in China and had relations with Portuguese settlers and sailors, or low class Chinese women.[80][81] Western men like the Portuguese were refused by high class Cantonese women, who did not marry foreigners.[82] While a minority were Cantonese men and Portuguese women. Macanese men and women also married with the Portuguese and Cantonese, as a result, some Macanese became indistinguishable from the Cantonese or Portuguese population. Because the majority of the population who migrated to Macau were Cantonese, Macau became a culturally Cantonese-speaking society, other ethnic groups became fluent in Cantonese. Most Macanese had paternal Portuguese heritage until 1974.[80] It was in 1980s that Macanese and Portuguese women began to marry men who defined themselves ethnically as Chinese,[83] which resulted in many Macanese with Cantonese paternal ancestry. Many Chinese became Macanese simply by converting to Catholicism, and had no ancestry from the Portuguese, having assimilated into the Macanese people since they were rejected by non Christian Chinese.[84]

    After the handover of Macau to China in 1999 many Macanese migrated to other countries. Of the Portuguese and Macanese women who stayed in Macau married with local Cantonese men, resulting in more Macanese with Cantonese paternal heritage. There are between 25,000–46,000 Macanese; 5,000–8,000 of whom

    After the handover of Macau to China in 1999 many Macanese migrated to other countries. Of the Portuguese and Macanese women who stayed in Macau married with local Cantonese men, resulting in more Macanese with Cantonese paternal heritage. There are between 25,000–46,000 Macanese; 5,000–8,000 of whom live in Macau, while most live in Latin America (most particularly Brazil), America, and Portugal. Unlike the Macanese of Macau who are strictly of Chinese and Portuguese heritage, many Macanese living abroad are not entirely of Portuguese and Chinese ancestry; many Macanese men and women intermarried with the local population of America and Latin America etc. and have only partial Macanese heritage.

    During the Siege of Fort Zeelandia in which Chinese Ming loyalist forces commanded by Koxinga besieged and defeated the Dutch East India Company and conquered Taiwan, the Chinese took Dutch women and children prisoner. Koxinga took Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine,[85][86][87] and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives. In 1684 some of these Dutch wives were still captives of the Chinese.[88]

    Japan

    Marcus Tulio Tanaka