Friulian ( ) or Friulan (natively or ; it|friulano; german: Furlanisch; sl|furlanščina) is a Romance language
belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance
family, spoken in the Friuli
region of northeastern Italy
. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian
. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin since it shares the same roots as Ladin
, but over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German
, and Slovene
. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language.
A question that causes many debates is the influence of the Latin spoken in Aquileia
and surrounding areas. Some claim that it had peculiar features that later passed into Friulian. Epigraphs and inscriptions from that period show some variants if compared to the standard Latin language, but most of them are common to other areas of the Roman Empire; often, it is cited that Fortunatianus
, the bishop of Aquileia
342 - 357 AD, wrote a commentary to the Gospel
in ''sermo rusticus'' (the common/ language), which, therefore, would have been quite divergent from the standard Latin
The text itself did not survive so its language cannot be examined, but its attested existence testifies to a shift of languages while, for example, other important communities of Northern Italy were still speaking Latin. The language spoken before the arrival of the Romans in 181 BC was of Celtic
origin since the inhabitants belonged to the Carni
, a Celtic population. In modern Friulian, the words of Celtic origins are many (terms referring to mountains, woods, plants, animals, ''inter alia
'') and much influence of the original population is shown in toponyms (names of villages with ''-acco'', ''-icco''). Even influences from the Lombardic language
- Friuli was one of their
strongholds - are very frequent. In a similar manner, there are unique connections to the modern, nearby Lombard language
In Friulian, there are also a plethora of words of German
origin. From that evidence, scholars today agree that the formation of Friulian dates back to circa 1000 AD, at the same time as other dialects derived from Latin (see Vulgar Latin
). The first written records of Friulian have been found in administrative acts of the 13th century, but the documents became more frequent in the following century, when literary works also emerged (''Frammenti letterari'' for example). The main centre at that time was Cividale
. The Friulian language has never acquired official status: legal statutes were first written in Latin, then in Venetian and finally in Italian.
The "Ladin Question"
The idea of unity among Ladin
and Friulian comes from the Italian historical linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
, who was born in Gorizia
. In 1871, he presented his theory that these three languages are part of one family, which in the past stretched from Switzerland
and perhaps also Istria
. The three languages are the only survivors of this family and all developed differently. Friulian was much less influenced by German
. The scholar Francescato claimed subsequently that until the 14th century, the Venetian language
shared many phonetic features with Friulian and Ladin and so he thought that Friulian was a much more conservative
language. Many features that Ascoli thought were peculiar to the Rhaeto-Romance languages can, in fact, be found in other languages of Northern Italy
Today, Friulian is spoken in the province of Udine
, including the area of the Carnia Alps
, but as well throughout the province of Pordenone
, in half of the province of Gorizia
, and in the eastern part of the province of Venice
. In the past, the language borders were wider since in Trieste
, local variants of Friulian were spoken. The main document about the dialect of Trieste, or ''tergestino'', is "Dialoghi piacevoli in dialetto vernacolo triestino", published by G. Mainati in 1828.
Friuli was, until the 1960s, an area of deep poverty, causing a large number of Friulian speakers to emigrate. Most went to France
, and Switzerland
or outside Europe
, to Canada
, the United States
, and South Africa
. In those countries, there are associations of Friulian immigrants (called ''Fogolâr furlan'') that try to protect their traditions and language.
The first texts in Friulian date back to the 13th century and are mainly commercial or juridical acts. The examples show that Friulian was used together with Latin, which was still the administrative language. The main examples of literature that have survived (much from this period has been lost
) are poems from the 14th century and are usually dedicated to the theme of love and are probably inspired by the Italian poetic movement Dolce Stil Novo
. The most notable work is ''Piruç myò doç inculurit'' (which means "My sweet, coloured pear"); it was composed by an anonymous author from Cividale del Friuli, probably in 1380.
There are few differences in the first two rows, which demonstrates that there has not been a great evolution in the language except for several words which are no longer used (for example, , a word which means "child"). A modern Friulian speaker can understand these texts with only little difficulty.
The second important period for Friulian literature is the 16th century. The main author of this period was Ermes di Colorêt
, who composed over 200 poems.
* are bilabial
, whereas are labiodental
and is labiovelar
* Note that, in the standard language, a phonemic distinction exists between true palatal stops and palatoalveolar affricates . The former (written ) originate from Latin before , whereas the latter (written , where is found before and , and is found elsewhere) originate primarily from Latin before and . The palatalization of Latin and before is characteristic of the Rhaeto-Romance languages
and is also found in French
and some Occitan
varieties. In some Friulian dialects (e.g. Western dialects), corresponding to Central are found . Note in addition that, due to various sound changes, these sounds are all now phonemic; note, for example, the minimal pair ' "drunk" vs. ' "log".
Some notes on orthography (from the perspective of the standard, i.e. Central, dialect):
* Long vowels are indicated with a circumflex
* is used for both (which only occurs in stressed syllables) and ; similarly, is used for both and .
* is spelled word-initially, and elsewhere.
* occurs primarily in diphthongs, and is spelled .
* is normally spelled , but is spelled between vowels (in this context, a single is pronounced ).
* is spelled , which can also occur word-finally.
* is an allophone of , found word-finally, before word-final ''-s'', and often in the prefix ''in-''. Both sounds are spelled .
* is normally spelled , but before and , as in Italian.
* is normally spelled , but before and , again as in Italian.
* The palatal stops are spelled . Note that in some dialects, these sounds are pronounced , as described above.
* is spelled before and , elsewhere. Note that in some dialects, this sound is pronounced .
* is spelled . Note that in some dialects, this sound is pronounced .
* can also represent or in certain words (e.g. ''nazion'' "nation", ''lezion'' "lesson").
* is silent.
* is no longer used except in the traditional spelling of certain proper names; similarly for before and .
Long vowels and their origin
Long vowels are typical of the Friulian language and greatly influence the Friulian pronunciation of Italian.
Friulian distinguishes between short and long vowels: in the following minimal pair
s (long vowels are marked in the official orthography with a circumflex
: ''lat'' (milk)
: ''lât'' (gone)
: ''fis'' (fixed, dense)
: ''fîs'' (sons)
: ''lus'' (luxury)
: ''lûs'' (light n.)
Friulian dialects differ in their treatment of long vowels. In certain dialects, some of the long vowels are actually diphthongs. The following chart shows how six words (''sêt'' thirst, ''pît'' foot, ''fîl'' "wire", ''pôc'' (a) little, ''fûc'' fire, ''mûr'' "wall") are pronounced in four dialects. Each dialect uses a unique pattern of diphthongs (yellow) and monophthongs (blue) for the long vowels:
Note that the vowels ''î'' and ''û'' in the standard language (based on the Central dialects) correspond to two different sounds in the Western dialects (including Codroipo). These sounds are not distributed randomly but correspond to different origins: Latin short in an open syllable produces Western but Central , whereas Latin long produces in both dialects. Similarly, Latin short in an open syllable produces Western but Central , whereas Latin long produces in both dialects. The word ''mûr'', for example, means both "wall" (Latin ) and "(he, she, it) dies" (Vulgar Latin * from Latin ); both words are pronounced in Central dialects, but respectively and in Western dialects.
Long consonants (ll, rr, and so on), frequently used in Italian, are usually absent in Friulian.
Friulian long vowels originate primarily from vowel lengthening in stressed open syllable
s when the following vowel was lost.
Friulian vowel length has no relation to vowel length in Classical Latin. For example, Latin yields ''vâl'' "it is worth" with a long vowel, but Latin yields ''val'' "valley" with a short vowel. Long vowels aren't found when the following vowel is preserved, e.g.:
* before final -e < Latin , cf. short ''nuve'' "new (fem. sg.)" < Latin vs. long ''nûf'' "new (masc. sg.)" < Latin ;
* before a non-final preserved vowel, cf. ''tivit'' /ˈtivit/ "tepid, lukewarm" < Latin , ''zinar'' /ˈzinar/ "son-in-law" < Latin , ''ridi'' /ˈridi/ "to laugh" < Vulgar Latin (Classical ).
It is quite possible that vowel lengthening occurred originally in all stressed open syllables, and was later lost in non-final syllables.
Evidence of this is found, for example, in the divergent outcome of Vulgar Latin , which becomes in originally closed syllables but in Central Friulian in originally open syllables, including when non-finally. Examples: ''siet'' "seven" < Vulgar Latin < Latin , word-final ''pît'' "foot" < Vulgar Latin < Latin , non-word-final ''tivit'' "tepid, lukewarm" < Vulgar Latin < Latin .
An additional source of vowel length is compensatory lengthening
before lost consonants in certain circumstances, cf. ''pâri'' "father" < Latin , ''vôli'' "eye" < Latin , ''lîre'' "pound" < Latin . This produces long vowels in non-final syllables, and was apparently a separate, later development than the primary lengthening in open syllables. Note, for example, the development of Vulgar Latin in this context: > > ''iê'' , as in ''piêre'' "stone" < Latin , differing from the outcome in originally open syllables (see above).
* Central Friulian has lengthening before /r/ even in originally closed syllables, cf. ''cjâr'' /caːr/ "cart" < Latin (homophonous with ''cjâr'' "dear (masc. sg.)" < Latin ). This represents a late, secondary development, and some conservative dialects have the expected length distinction here.
* Lengthening doesn't occur before nasal consonant
s even in originally open syllables, cf. ''pan'' /paŋ/ "bread" < Latin , ''prin'' /priŋ/ "first" < Latin .
* Special developments produced absolutely word-final long vowels and length distinctions, cf. ''fi'' "fig" < Latin vs. ''fî'' "son" < Latin , ''no'' "no" < Latin vs. ''nô'' "we" < Latin .
analyses of vowel length in Friulian often claim that it occurs predictably in final syllables before an underlying voiced obstruent
, which is then devoiced.
Analyses of this sort have difficulty with long-vowel contrasts that occur non-finally (e.g. ''pâri'' "father" mentioned above) or not in front of obstruents (e.g. ''fi'' "fig" vs. ''fî'' "son", ''val'' "valley" vs. ''vâl'' "it is worth").
Friulian is quite different from Italian in its morphology; it is, in many respects, closer to French
In Friulian as in other Romance languages
s are either masculine or feminine
(for example, "''il mûr''" ("the wall", masculine), "''la cjadree''" ("the chair", feminine).
Most feminine nouns end in ''-e'', which is pronounced, unlike in Standard French:
* ''cjase'' = house (from Latin "casa, -ae" hut)
* ''lune'' = moon (from Latin "luna, -ae")
* ''scuele'' = school (from Latin "schola, -ae")
Some feminine nouns, however, end in a consonant, including those ending in ''-zion'', which are from Latin
* ''man'' = hand (from Latin "manŭs, -ūs" f)
* ''lezion'' = lesson (from Latin "lectio, -nis" f
Note that in some Friulian dialects the -e feminine ending is actually an -a or an -o, which characterize the dialect area of the language and are referred to as ''a/o-ending dialects'' (e.g. is spelled as or the latter being the oldest form of the feminine ending).
Most masculine nouns end either in a consonant or in ''-i''.
* ''cjan'' = dog
* ''gjat'' = cat
* ''fradi'' = brother
* ''libri'' = book
A few masculine nouns end in ''-e'', including ''sisteme'' (system) and ''probleme'' (problem). They are usually words coming from Ancient Greek
. However, because most masculine nouns end in a consonant, it is common to find the forms ''sistem'' and ''problem'' instead, more often in print than in speech.
There are also a number of masculine nouns borrowed intact from Italian
, with a final ''-o'', like ''treno'' (train). Many of the words have been fully absorbed into the language and even form their plurals with the regular Friulian ''-s'' rather than the Italian desinence
changing. Still, there are some purists, including those influential in Friulian publishing, who frown on such words and insist that the "proper" Friulian terms should be without the final ''-o''. Despite the fact that one almost always hears ''treno'', it is almost always written ''tren''.
The Friulian definite article
(which corresponds to "the" in English) is derived from the Latin ''ille'' and takes the following forms:
Before a vowel, both ''il'' and ''la'' can be abbreviated to l' in the standard forms - for example ''il + arbul'' (the tree) becomes ''l'arbul.'' Yet, as far as the article ''la'' is concerned, modern grammar recommends that its non elided form should be preferred over the elided one: ''la acuile (the eagle)'' although in speech the two ''a'' sounds are pronounced as a single one. In the spoken language, various other articles are used.
The indefinite article in Friulian (which corresponds to "a" and ''an'' in English) derives from the Latin ''unus'' and varies according to gender:
A partitive article also exists: des for feminine and dai for masculine: – ''some cows'' and ''dai libris'' - ''some books''
A Friulian adjective
must agree in gender and number with the noun it qualifies. Most adjectives have four forms for singular (masculine and feminine) and plural (masculine and feminine):
(Like for nouns, for a/o-ending dialects the plural is simply obtained by adding an ''s -'' e.g. ''brute'' corresponds to ''bruta/bruto'' and its plural form ''brutis'' is ''brutas/brutos'').
The feminine is formed in several ways from the masculine:
* in most cases, all that is needed is -e (short: ''curt'', ''curte'')
* if the final letter is a -c, the feminine can end with -cje, -gje, -che, -ghe (little: pôc, pôcje)
* if the final letter is a -f, the feminine can end with -ve (new: ''gnûf, gnove'')
* if the final letter is a -p, the feminine can end with -be (sour: ''garp, garbe'')
* if the final letter is a -t, the feminine can end with -de (green: ''vert, verde'')
To form the plural of masculine and feminine nouns ending in -e, the -e is changed to -is (whilst a/o-ending dialects simply add an s)
* , = table, tables
* , = house, houses
* , = moon, moons
* , = school, schools
* , = system, systems
* , = glove, gloves
* , = niece, nieces
The plural of almost all other nouns is just -s. It is always pronounced as voiceless
as in English
''cats'', never as voiced
as in ''dogs''.
* , = hand, hands
* , = lesson, lessons
* , = dog, dogs
* , = cat, cats
* , = brother, brothers
* , = book, books
* , = train, trains
* , = arm, arms (from Latin "bracchium")
* , = glove, gloves (compare English "gauntlet")
In some Friulian dialects, there are many words whose final consonant becomes silent when the -s is added. The words include just about all those whose singular form ends in -t. The plural of , for example, is written as but is pronounced in much of Friuli as if it were . The plural of 'dish', though written as , is often pronounced as . Other words in this category include ''clâf'' (key) and ''clap'' (stone), whose plural forms, clâfs and claps, are often pronounced with no f or p, respectively (clâs, clas) so the longer a in the former is all that distinguishes it from the latter. A final -ç, which is pronounced either as the English
"-ch" (in central Friulian) or as "-s", is pluralized in writing as -çs, regardless of whether the pluralized pronunciation is "-s" or "-ts" (it varies according to dialect): messaç / messaçs (message).
Masculine nouns ending in -l or -li form their plurals by palatalising final -l or -li to -i.
* , = horse, horses (from Latin "caballus")
* , = string, strings (from Latin "filum")
* , = hat, hats
* , = hair, hairs
* , = eye, eyes
* , = knee, knees (from Latin "genu")
Notice how these very often correspond to French nouns that form an irregular plural in -''x'': ''cheval-chevaux, chapeau-chapeaux, cheveu-cheveux, oeil-yeux, genou-genoux''.
Feminine nouns ending in -l have regular plurals.
* ''piel'', ''piels'' = skin, skins
* ''val'', ''vals'' (in northern Friulian also "tal", "tals") = valley, valleys
Masculine nouns ending in -st form their plurals by palatalising the final -t to -cj
* ''cavalarist'', ''cavalariscj'' = military horseman, military horsemen
* ''test'', ''tescj'' = text, texts
Some masculine nouns ending in -t form their plurals by palatalising the final -t to -cj:
* , = tooth, teeth (from Latin "dens, -tis")
* , = all (of one thing), all (of several things) (from Latin "totus")
Nouns ending in "s" do not change spelling in the plural, but some speakers may pronounce the plural -s differently from the singular -s.
* ''vues'' = bone, bones
* ''pes'' = fish (singular or plural) (from Latin "piscis")
* ''mês'' = month, months (from Latin "mensis")
The plural of ''an'' (year) has several forms depending on dialect, including ''ain'', ''ains'', ''agn'' and ''agns''. Regardless of pronunciation, the written form is ''agns''.
The same happens for the adjective ''bon'' (good), as its plural is .
Clitic subject pronouns
A feature of Friulian are the clitic subject pronoun
s. Known in Friulian as ''pleonastics'', they are never stressed; they are used together with the verb to express the subject and can be found before the verb
in declarative sentences
or immediately after it in case of interrogative
or vocative (''optative'') sentences.
An example: ''jo o lavori'' means "I work"; ''lavorio?'' means "Do I work?", while ''lavorassio'' means "I wish I worked".
* Friulian verbal infinitive
s have one of four endings, -â, -ê, -i, -î; removing the ending gives the root, used to form the other forms (''fevelâ'', to speak; root ''fevel-''), but in the case of irregular verbs, the root changes. They are common (''jessi'', to be; ''vê'', to have; ''podê'', to be able to). Verbs are frequently used in combination with adverbs to restrict the meaning.
An adjective can be made into an adverb
by adding -mentri to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective (''lente'' becomes ''lentementri'', slowly), but it can sometimes lose the -e of the adjective (''facile'' becomes ''facilmentri'', easily). It is more common in the written language; in the spoken language people frequently use other forms or locutions (''a planc'' for slowly).
Most vocabulary is derived from Latin, with substantial phonological and morphological changes throughout its history. Therefore, many words are shared with the Romance languages
Here the composition:
(9%) words are many, because the substrate of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Friuli, was the Karn-Celtic language. ("bâr", wood; "clap/crap", stone;"cjâr", plow; "crot", frog)
* Modern German
(10%) words were introduced in particular in the Middle Ages
, during the Patrie dal Friûl
, when the influence from this culture was quite strong (''bearç'', backyard).
(3%) words were brought by Slavic
(mostly Alpine Slavic
) immigrants called several times to Friuli
to repopulate lands devastated by Hungarian
invasions in the 10th century (, barn; , to shout). Furthermore, many Slavic words have entered Friulian through the centuries-long neighbouring between Friulians and Slovenes
, especially in north-eastern Friuli (Slavia Friulana
) and in the Gorizia and Gradisca
area. Words such as ''colaç'' (cake), ''cudiç'' (devil) and ''cos'' (basket) are all of Slovene
origin. There are also many toponyms with Slavic roots.
* There are many words that have Germanic (8%, probably Lombardic
origins) and Celtic roots (what still remained of the languages spoken before the Romans came). Examples of the first category are ''sbregâ'', to tear; ''sedon'', spoon; ''taponâ'', to cover. For the latter category, ''troi'', path; , trousers.
* Latin and derived languages (68%):
influenced Friulian vocabulary: , straw.
** Some French
words entered the Friulian vocabulary: , really and ''gustâ'', to have lunch.
itself has a growing influence on Friulian vocabulary, especially as far as neologisms are concerned (''tren'' meaning train). Such neologisms are currently used even if they not accepted in the official dictionary (for example the verb "to iron" is ''sopressâ'' but the verb ''stirâ'' taken from Italian is used more and more instead).
* Scientific terms are often of Greek origin, and there are also some Arabic
terms in Friulian (<1%, ''lambic'', still).
* Many English
words (such as computer, monitor, mouse and so on) have entered the Friulian vocabulary through Italian. (more than 1%).
Nowadays, Friulian is officially recognized in Italy
, supported by law 482/1999, which protects linguistic minorities. Therefore, optional teaching of Friulian has been introduced in many primary schools. An online newspaper is active, and there are also a number of musical groups singing in Friulian and some theatrical companies. Recently, two movies have been made in Friulian (''Tierç lion'', ''Lidrîs cuadrade di trê''), with positive reviews in Italian newspapers. In about 40% of the communities in the Province of Udine
, road signs are in both Friulian and Italian. There is also an official translation of the Bible
. In 2005, a notable brand of beer used Friulian for one of its commercials.
The main association to foster the use and development of Friulian is the ''Societât filologjiche furlane'', founded in Gorizia
Every city and village in Friuli has two names
, one in Italian
and one in Friulian. Only the Italian is official and used in administration, but it is widely expected that the Friulian ones will receive partial acknowledgement in the near future. For example, the city of Udine
is called ''Udin'' in Friulian, the town of Tolmezzo
''Tumieç'' and the town of Aviano
is called both Avian and Pleif.
A challenge that Friulian shares with other minorities is to create a standard language and a unique writing system. The regional law 15/1996 approved a standard orthography, which represents the basis of a common variant and should be used in toponyms, official acts, written documents. The standard is based on Central Friulian, which was traditionally the language used in literature already in 1700 and afterwards (the biggest examples are probably Pieri Çorut's works) but with some changes:
* the diphthong
''ie'' replaces ''ia'': ''fier (iron)'' instead of ''fiar'', ''tiere (soil, earth)'' instead of ''tiare''.
* the use of ''vu'' instead of ''u'' at the beginning of word: ''vueli (oil)'' instead of ''ueli '', ''vueit (empty)'' instead of ''ueit''.
* the use of ''i'' between vocals: ''ploie (rain)'' instead of ''ploe''.
Standard Friulian is called in Friulian ''furlan standard'', ''furlan normalizât'' or from Greek
There have been several critics of the standardisation of Friulian, mainly from speakers of local variants that differ substantially from the proposed standard; they also argue that the standard could eventually kill local variants. The supporters of standardisation refer to the various advantages that a unique form can bring to the language. Above all, it can help to stop the influence of Italian language
in the neologism
s, which pose a serious threat to Friulian's future development. They also point out that it is a written standard without affecting pronunciation, which can follow local variants.
Opponents of the standardisation, on the other hand, insist that the standard language, being artificially created, is totally inadequate to represent the local variations, particularly from differences in the phonetic pronunciation of the words in each variant that may, in some cases, even require special and different diacritics for writing a single variant.
Variants of Friulian
Four dialects of Friulian can be at least distinguished, all mutually intelligible
. They are usually distinguished by the last vowel of many parts of speech (including nouns, adjectives, adverbs), following this scheme:
* Central Friulian, spoken around Udine
has words ending with -e. It is used in official documents and generally considered standard. Some people see it as the least original but one of the most recent variants since it does not show interesting features found in other variants, as it has Venetian influence.
* Northern Friulian, spoken in Carnia
, has several variants. The language can vary with the valleys and words can end in -o, -e or -a. It is the most archaic variant.
* Southeastern Friulian, spoken in Bassa Friulana
and Isontino and in the area along the Isonzo
River (the area of the old Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca
) has words that end with -a. This variant has been known since the origins of the language and was used as official literary language by the Friulians of the Austrian Empire. It was influenced by German and Slavic.
* Western Friulian, including Pordenonese, is spoken in the Province of Pordenone
and is also called , from Concordia Sagittaria
. Words end with -a or -e, but the strong Venetian influence, makes it be considered one of the most corrupted variants.
The word for ''home'' is in Central Friulian and or in other areas. Pier Paolo Pasolini
wrote his works in Western Friulian since he learned the language from his mother who was from Casarsa/Cjasarsa
In the 13th century, early literary works in Friulian were based on the language spoken in Cividale del Friuli, which was the most important town in Friuli. The endings in -o, which now is restricted to some villages in Carnia
. Later, the main city of Friuli
and the most common ending was -a; only from the 16th century on, -e endings were used in standard Friulian.
In the official writing system, approved by the (former, abolished in 2017) Province of Udine
and used in official documents, Friulian is written using the Latin script
with the c-cedilla
(ç). The letter q is used only for personal names and historical toponyms, and in every other case, it is replaced by c. Besides that, k, x, w, and y appear only in loan words so they are not considered part of the alphabet.
:Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Zz
There are also grave accent
s (à, è, ì, ò and ù) and circumflex accent
s (â, ê, î, ô, and û), which are put above the vowel
s to distinguish between homophonic words or to show stress (the former) and show long vowels (the latter).
An alternative system is called Faggin-Nazzi
from the names of the scholars who proposed it. It is less common, probably also because it is more difficult for a beginner for its use of letters, such as č, that are typical of Slavic languages
but seem foreign to native Italian speakers.
* Paola Benincà & Laura Vanelli. ''Linguistica friulana''. Padova: Unipress, 2005.
* Paola Benincà & Laura Vanelli. “Friulian”, in ''The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages'', eds. Adam Ledgeway & Martin Maiden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 139–53.
* Franc Fari, ed. ''Manuâl di lenghistiche furlane''. Udine: Forum, 2005.
* Giuseppe Francescato. ''Dialettologia friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1966.
* Giovanni Frau. ''I dialetti del Friuli''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1984.
* Sabine Heinemann. ''Studi di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 2007.
* Carla Marcato. ''Friuli-Venezia Giulia''. Rome–Bari: Laterza, 2001.
* Nazzi, Gianni & Deborah Saidero, eds. '' Friulan Dictionary: English-Friulan / Friulan-English.'' Udine: Ent. Friul tal Mond, 2000.
* Piera Rizzolati. ''Elementi di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1981.
* Paolo Roseano. La pronuncia del friulano standard: proposte, problemi, prospettive
', ''Ce Fastu?'' LXXXVI, vol. 1 (2010), p. 7–34.
*Paolo Roseano. ''Suddivisione dialettale del friulano'', in ''Manuale di linguistica friulana'', eds. S. Heinemann & L. Melchior. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2015, pp. 155–186.
* Federico Vicario, ed. ''Lezioni di lingua e cultura friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 2005.
* Federico Vicario. ''Lezioni di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Forum, 2005.
The grammar section is based o
by R. Pontisso. Some parts are also based loosely on ''Gramatiche furlane'' by Fausto Zof, Edizioni Leonardo, Udine 2002.
Short video showing bilingual Italian/Friulian road signsRadio Onde Furlane
''Radio in Friulian language.''
Grafie uficiâl de lenghe furlane — Agjenzie regjonal pe lenghe furlane (different other language resources)
* Dante in furlanProvincie di Udin-Provincia di Udine: La lingua friulanaLa Patrie dal Friûl; Magazine and News in Friulian language since 1946Lenghe.net – Online bilingual magazine in Friulian language (2004–2010)Online magazine and resourcesThe juridical defence of Friulian (in English)Friulian Journal of Science
nbsp;– an association to foster the use of Friulian in the scientific world
''Fogolâr Furlan'' of WindsorSocietat Filologjiche Furlane
* ttp://www3.sympatico.ca/rpontisso/firefoxfurlan.htm Friulian version of Firefox browserCentri Friûl Lenghe 2000, Online bilingual dictionary (Italian/Friulian) with online toolsFurlan English Dictionary
froWebster's Online Dictionary
– The Rosetta Edition
– a computer game in Friulian
Italian-Friulian DictionaryFriulian-Italian-Slovenian-German-English-Spanish-French Multilingual DictionaryFriulian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
– ''uses the Faggin-Nazzi alphabet
Category:Languages of Italy