thumb|right|350px|The Pontic steppe
s, c.1015. The areas in blue are those possibly still under Khazar control.
Georgius Tzul (also ''Georgios'') was a Khazar
warlord against whom the Byzantine Empire
and Mstislav of Tmutarakan
launched a joint expedition in 1016.
He appears only in the account of the Byzantine court historians Kedrenos
and John Skylitzes
, who place him at Kerch
and calls him "khagan
" (the title of the Khazar emperors). Kedrenos states that he was captured by the expeditionary force but does not relate his ultimate fate. Inscriptions and other references exist referring to a Tzul or Tsal clan in Crimea
during this period; presumably he was a member although the relationship of that family to the original ruling dynasty of Khazaria is unknown. Almost nothing else about him, including the extent of his holdings, is known.
Despite the fact that earlier writers maintained that the Khazar khagan was required to adhere to Judaism
, Georgius is a Christian name
. Whether Georgius Tzul was himself a Christian, a Jew or Shaman
ist with an unusual Greek name, or whether the name is merely a Byzantine attempt to transliterate a Turkic or Hebrew name, is unknown.
Byzantine campaigns occurred roughly during this period against the Georgians
and the Bulgarian Empire
, suggesting a concerted effort to re-establish Byzantine dominance in the Black Sea
*Kevin Alan Brook
. ''The Jews of Khazaria''. 2nd ed. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006.
Category:11th century in the Byzantine Empire
Category:11th-century rulers in Europe