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The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Often slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction ("rise over run") in which ''run'' is the horizontal distance (not the distance along the slope) and ''rise'' is the vertical distance. Slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides, stream and river banks and beds are often described as grades, but typically grades are used for human-made surfaces such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle routes. The grade may refer to the longitudinal slope or the perpendicular cross slope.

Nomenclature

There are several ways to express slope: # as an ''angle'' of inclination to the horizontal. (This is the angle opposite the "rise" side of a triangle with a right angle between vertical rise and horizontal run.) # as a ''percentage'', the formula for which is 100 \times \frac which is equivalent to the tangent of the angle of inclination times 100. In Europe and the U.S. percentage "grade" is the most commonly used figure for describing slopes. # as a ''per mille'' figure (‰), the formula for which is 1000 \times \frac which could also be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 1000. This is commonly used in Europe to denote the incline of a railway. # as a ''ratio'' of one part rise to so many parts run. For example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 1000 feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 200. (The word "in" is normally used rather than the mathematical ratio notation of "1:200".) This is generally the method used to describe railway grades in Australia and the UK. It is used for roads in Hong Kong, and was used for roads in the UK until the 1970s. # as a ''ratio'' of many parts run to one part rise, which is the inverse of the previous expression (depending on the country and the industry standards). For example, "slopes are expressed as ratios such as 4:1. This means that for every 4 units (feet or metres) of horizontal distance there is a 1 unit (foot or metre) vertical change either up or down." Any of these may be used. Grade is usually expressed as a percentage, but this is easily converted to the angle by taking the inverse tangent of the standard mathematical slope, which is rise / run or the grade / 100. If one looks at red numbers on the chart specifying grade, one can see the quirkiness of using the grade to specify slope; the numbers go from 0 for flat, to 100% at 45 degrees, to infinity as it approaches vertical. Slope may still be expressed when the horizontal run is not known: the rise can be divided by the hypotenuse (the slope length). This is not the usual way to specify slope; this nonstandard expression follows the sine function rather than the tangent function, so it calls a 45 degree slope a 71 percent grade instead of a 100 percent. But in practice the usual way to calculate slope is to measure the distance along the slope and the vertical rise, and calculate the horizontal run from that, in order to calculate the grade (100% × rise/run) or standard slope (rise/run). When the angle of inclination is small, using the slope length rather than the horizontal displacement (i.e., using the sine of the angle rather than the tangent) makes only an insignificant difference and can then be used as an approximation. Railway gradients are often expressed in terms of the rise in relation to the distance along the track as a practical measure. In cases where the difference between sin and tan is significant, the tangent is used. In either case, the following identity holds for all inclinations up to 90 degrees: \tan = \frac. Or more simply, one can calculate the horizontal run by using the Pythagorean theorem, after which it is trivial to calculate the (standard math) slope or the grade (percentage). In Europe, road gradients are signed as a percentage.

Equations

Grades are related using the following equations with symbols from the figure at top.

Tangent as a ratio

:\tan = \frac The slope expressed as a percentage can similarly be determined from the tangent of the angle: :\%\,\text = 100 \tan

Angle from a tangent gradient

:\alpha = \arctan \quad If the tangent is expressed as a percentage, the angle can be determined as: :\alpha = \arctan If the angle is expressed as a ratio ''(1 in n)'' then: :\alpha = \arctan


Roads


In vehicular engineering, various land-based designs (automobiles, sport utility vehicles, trucks, trains, etc.) are rated for their ability to ascend terrain. Trains typically rate much lower than automobiles. The highest grade a vehicle can ascend while maintaining a particular speed is sometimes termed that vehicle's "gradeability" (or, less often, "grade ability"). The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them. In the United States, maximum grade for Federally funded highways is specified in a design table based on terrain and design speeds, with up to 6% generally allowed in mountainous areas and hilly urban areas with exceptions for up to 7% grades on mountainous roads with speed limits below . The steepest roads in the world are Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech, Wales and Canton Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Guinness World Record once again lists Baldwin Street as the steepest street in the world, with a 34.8% grade (1 in 2.87) after a successful appeal against the ruling that handed the title, briefly, to Ffordd Pen Llech. The Pittsburgh Department of Engineering and Construction recorded a grade of 37% (20°) for Canton Avenue. The street has formed part of a bicycle race since 1983. The San Francisco Municipal Railway operates bus service among the city's hills. The steepest grade for bus operations is 23.1% by the ''67-Bernal Heights'' on Alabama Street between Ripley and Esmeralda Streets. File:Nederlands verkeersbord J6.svg|10% slope warning sign, Netherlands File:Finland road sign 115.svg|7% descent warning sign, Finland File:Devil's Staircase Wales.jpg|25% ascent warning sign, Wales File:Pente30%.jpg|30% descent warning sign, over 1500 m. La Route des Crêtes, Cassis, France File:Seattle AM General trolleybus climbing James St near 5th Ave in 1983.jpg|A trolleybus climbing an 18% grade in Seattle B10 Enzweihinger Steige 20060528.JPG|ascent of German Bundesstraße 10 File:DunedinBaldwinStreet_Parked_Car.jpg|A car parked on Baldwin Street, Dunedin, New Zealand File:CantonAve_Top.jpg|Looking down Canton Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Environmental design

Grade, pitch, and slope are important components in landscape design, garden design, landscape architecture, and architecture; for engineering and aesthetic design factors. Drainage, slope stability, circulation of people and vehicles, complying with building codes, and design integration are all aspects of slope considerations in environmental design.


Railways


Ruling gradients limit the load that a locomotive can haul, including the weight of the locomotive itself. On a 1% gradient (1 in 100) a locomotive can pull half (or less) of the load that it can pull on level track. (A heavily loaded train rolling at 20 km/h on heavy rail may require ten times the pull on a 1% upgrade that it does on the level at that speed.) Early railways in the United Kingdom were laid out with very gentle gradients, such as 0.05% (1 in 2000), because the early locomotives (and their brakes) were feeble. Steep gradients were concentrated in short sections of lines where it was convenient to employ assistant engines or cable haulage, such as the section from Euston to Camden Town. Extremely steep gradients require the use of cables (such as the Scenic Railway at Katoomba Scenic World, Australia, with a maximum grade of 122% (52°), claimed to be the world's steepest passenger-carrying funicular) or some kind of rack railway (such as the Pilatus railway in Switzerland, with a maximum grade of 48% (26°), claimed to be the world's steepest rack railway) to help the train ascend or descend. Gradients can be expressed as an angle, as feet per mile, feet per chain, 1 in , % or per mille. Since designers like round figures, the method of expression can affect the gradients selected. The steepest railway lines that do not use a rack system include: * 13.5% (1 in 7.40) – Lisbon tram, Portugal * 11.6% (1 in 8.62) – Pöstlingbergbahn, Linz, Austria * 11.0% (1 in 9.09) – Cass Scenic Railway, US (former logging line) * 9.0% (1 in 11.11) – Ligne de Saint Gervais – Vallorcine, France * 9.0% (1 in 11.11) – Muni Metro J Church, San Francisco, US * 8.65% (1 in 11.95) – Portland Streetcar, Oregon, US * 8.33%(1 in 12) – Nilgiri Mountain Railway Tamil Nadu, India * 8.0% (1 in 12.5) – Just outside the Tobstone Jct. Station in the Tombstone Junction Theme Park, Kentucky, US. The railroad line there had a ruling grade of 6% (1 in 16.7). * 7.1% (1 in 14.08) – Erzberg Railway, Austria * 7.0% (1 in 14.28) – Bernina Railway, Switzerland * 6.5% (1 in 15.4) – Incline from the Causeway Street Tunnel up to the Lechmere Viaduct on the Green Line (MBTA), Boston, Massachusetts, US. This incline is the "steepest grade of tracks in the T system." * 6.0% (1 in 16.7) – Arica, Chile to La Paz, Bolivia * 6.0% (1 in 16.6) – Docklands Light Railway, London, UK * 6.0% (1 in 16.6) – Ferrovia Centrale Umbra, Italy * 5.89% (1 in 16.97) – Madison, Indiana, US * 5.6% (1 in 18) – Flåm Line, Norway * 5.3% (1 in 19) – Foxfield Railway, Staffordshire, UK * 5.1% (1 in 19.6) – Saluda Grade, North Carolina, US * 5.0% (1 in 20) – Khyber Pass Railway, Pakistan * 4.5% (1 in 22.2) – The Canadian Pacific Railway's Big Hill, British Columbia, Canada (prior to the construction of the Spiral Tunnels) * 4.0% (1 in 25) – Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line, Germany * 4.0% (1 in 25) – Bolan Pass Railway, Pakistan * 4.0% (1 in 25) – ( per ) – Tarana – Oberon branch, New South Wales, Australia. * 4.0% (1 in 25) – Matheran Light Railway, India * 4.0% (1 in 26) – Rewanui Incline, New Zealand. Fitted with Fell center rail but was not used for motive power, but only braking * 3.6% (1 in 27) – Ecclesbourne Valley Railway, Heritage Line, Wirksworth, Derbyshire, UK * 3.6% (1 in 28) – The Westmere Bank, New Zealand has a ruling gradient of 1 in 35, however peaks at 1 in 28 * 3.33% (1 in 30) – Umgeni Steam Railway, South Africa * 3.0% (1 in 33) – several sections of the Main Western line between Valley Heights and Katoomba in the Blue Mountains Australia. * 3.0% (1 in 33) – The entire Newmarket Line in central Auckland, New Zealand * 3.0% (1 in 33) – Otira Tunnel, New Zealand, which is equipped with extraction fans to reduce chance of overheating and low visibility * 3.0% (1 in 33) – The approaches to the George L. Anderson Memorial Bridge crossing the Neponset River, Boston, Massachusetts, US. The Ruling Gradient of the Braintree Branch of the Red Line (MBTA). * 2.7% (1 in 37) – Braganza Ghats, Bhor Ghat and Thull ghat sections in Indian Railways, India * 2.7% (1 in 37) – Exeter Central to Exeter St Davids, UK (see Exeter Central railway station#Description) * 2.7% (1 in 37) – Picton- Elevation, New Zealand * 2.65% (1 in 37.7) – Lickey Incline, UK * 2.6% (1 in 38) – A slope near Halden on Østfold Line, Norway – Ok for passenger multiple units, but an obstacle for freight trains which must keep their weight down on this international mainline because of the slope. Freight traffic has mainly shifted to road. * 2.3% (1 in 43.5) – Schiefe Ebene, Germany * 2.2% (1 in 45.5) – The Canadian Pacific Railway's Big Hill, British Columbia, Canada (after the construction of the Spiral Tunnels) * 2.0% (1 in 48) – Beasdale Bank (West Coast Scotland mainline), UK * 2.0% (1 in 50) – Numerous locations on New Zealand's railway network, New Zealand * 1.51% (1 in 66) – ( per ) New South Wales Government Railways, Australia, part of Main South line. * 1.25% (1 in 80) – Wellington Bank, Somerset, UK * 1.25% (1 in 80) – Rudgwick, UK (West Sussex) platform before regrading – too steep if a train is not provided with continuous brakes. * 0.77% (1 in 130) – Rudgwick, UK platform after regrading – not too steep if a train is not provided with continuous brakes.


Compensation for curvature


Gradients on sharp curves are effectively a bit steeper than the same gradient on straight track, so to compensate for this and make the ruling grade uniform throughout, the gradient on those sharp curves should be reduced slightly.


Continuous brakes


In the era before they were provided with continuous brakes, whether air brakes or vacuum brakes, steep gradients made it extremely difficult for trains to stop safely. In those days, for example, an inspector insisted that Rudgwick railway station in West Sussex be regraded. He would not allow it to open until the gradient through the platform was eased from 1 in 80 to 1 in 130.


See also


* Aspect (geography) * Civil engineering * Construction surveying * Grading (engineering) * Cut-and-cover * Cut and fill * Cut (earthmoving) * Embankment (transportation) * Grade separation * Inclined plane * List of steepest gradients on adhesion railways. * Percentage * Per mille * Rake * Roof pitch * Ruling gradient * Slope * Slope stability ** Slope stability analysis * Surveying * Trench * Tunnel * Wheelchair ramp


References





External links


* {{DEFAULTSORT:Grade (Slope) Category:Physical geography Category:Construction Category:Transportation engineering Category:Landscape architecture Category:Horticulture and gardening Category:Environmental design Category:Units of angle