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Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen[15] /ælˈhæzən/;[16] full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.[17][18][19][20][21][22] Referred to as "the father of modern optics",[23][24] he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. His most influential work is titled Kitāb al-Manāẓir (Arabic: كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in a Latin edition.[25] A polymath, he also wrote on philosophy, theology and medicine.[26]

Ibn al-Haytham was the first to explain that vision occurs when light reflects from an object and then passes to one's eyes.[27] He was also the first to demonstrate that vision occurs in the brain, rather than in the eyes.[28] Building upon a naturalistic, empirical method pioneered by Aristotle in ancient Greece, Ibn al-Haytham was an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be supported by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence—an early pioneer in the Latinized as Alhazen[15] /ælˈhæzən/;[16] full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.[17][18][19][20][21][22] Referred to as "the father of modern optics",[23][24] he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. His most influential work is titled Kitāb al-Manāẓir (Arabic: كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in a Latin edition.[25] A polymath, he also wrote on philosophy, theology and medicine.[26]

Ibn al-Haytham was the first to explain that vision occurs when light reflects from an object and then passes to one's eyes.[27] He was also the first to demonstrate that vision occurs in the brain, rather than in the eyes.[28] Building upon a naturalistic, empirical method pioneered by Aristotle in ancient Greece, Ibn al-Haytham was an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be supported by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence—an early pioneer in the scientific method five centuries before Renaissance scientists.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

Born in Basra, he spent most of his productive period in the Fatimid capital of Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises and tutoring members of the nobilities.[35] Ibn al-Haytham is sometimes given the byname al-Baṣrī after his birthplace,[36] or al-Miṣrī ("of Egypt").[37][38] Al-Haytham was dubbed the "Second Ptolemy" by Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi[39][40] and "The Physicist" by John Peckham.[41] Ibn al-Haytham paved the way for the modern science of physical optics.[42]

Sources

  • Masic I (2008), "Ibn al-Haitham--father of optics and describer of vision theory", Med Arh, Academy of medical sciences of bosnia and herzegovina, 62 (3): 183–8, PMID 18822953
  • Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Shanti, Yousef I; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa’ed H (2015), "Contribution of Arab researchers to ophthalmology: a bibliometric and comparative analysis", SpringerPlus, Springer Publishing, 4: 4:42, doi:10.1186/s40064-015-0806-0, PMC 4318829, PMID 25674499
  • Ackerman, James S (August 1991), Distance Points: Essays in Theory and Renaissance Art and Architecture, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press, ISBN 978-0262011228
  • Arjomand, Kamran (1997), "The emergence of scientific modernity in Iran: controversies surrounding astrology and modern astronomy in the mid-nineteenth century", Iranian Studies, 30 (1): 5–24, doi:10.1080/00210869708701857
  • Authier, André (2013), "3: The Dual Nature of Light", Early Days of X-ray Crystallography, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199659845
  • Baker, David B., ed. (2012), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Psychology: Global Perspectives, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195366556
  • El-Bizri, Nader (2007), "In Defence of the Sovereignty of Philosophy: Al-Baghdadi's Critique of Ibn al-Haytham's Geometrisation of Place", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 17: 57–80, doi:10.1017/S0957423907000367
  • El-Bizri, Nader (2009a), "La perception de la profondeur: Alhazen, Berkeley, et Merleau-Ponty", Oriens Occidens, Paris: CNRS, 5 (1): 171–184
  • El-Bizri, Nader (2009b), "Ibn al-Haytham et le problème de la couleur", Oriens Occidens, Paris: CNRS, 7 (1): 201–226
  • Dallal, Ahmad S. (1999), "Science, Medicine and Technology", in Esposito, John L. (ed.), The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press
  • Hodgson, Peter Edward (2006), Theology And Modern Physics, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing (published 15 January 2006), ISBN 978-0-7546-3622-9, OCLC 56876894, DDC: 201.653, LCC: BL265.P4 H63 2005
  • Kalin, Ibrahim; Ayduz, Salim; Dagli, Caner, eds. (2009), "Ibn al-Ḥaytam", The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, Oxford University Press

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