Kebara Cave (Hebrew
: מערת כבארה ''Me'arat Kebbara'', Arabic
: مغارة الكبارة ''Mugharat al-Kabara'') is an Israel
i limestone cave
locality in Wadi Kebara, situated at above sea level
on the western escarpment
of the Carmel Range
, in the Ramat HaNadiv
preserve of Zichron Yaakov
The cave was inhabited between 60,000 and 48,000 BP
and is famous for its excavated
finds of hominid
remains, made under the direction of Professor Ofer Bar-Yosef
and Francis Turville-Petre
excavated in the cave in the early 1930s, but by far the most significant discovery made at Kebara Cave was Kebara 2
in 1982, the most complete postcranial Neanderthal skeleton
found to date. Nicknamed "Moshe" and dating to ''circa'' 60,000 BP
, the skeleton preserved a large part of one individual's torso (vertebral column
s and pelvis
). The cranium
and most of the lower limbs were missing. The hyoid bone
was also preserved, and was the first Neanderthal hyoid bone found.
[Mithen, S.(2006). The Singing Neanderthals: The origins of music, language, mind, and body. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.]
culture is named after the site.
* Ramat HaNadiv
* Archaeology in Israel
* List of fossil sites
''(with link directory)''
* List of hominid fossils
* List of transitional fossils
* List of notable fossils
* Schick, T. & Stekelis, M. "Mousterian Assemblages in Kebara Cave, Mount Carmel", ''Eretz-Israel'' 13 (1977), pp. 97–150.
* Bar-Yosef, O. & B. Vandermeersch, ''et alii'', "The Excavations in Kebara Cave, Mount Carmel", ''Current Anthropology
'' 33.5 (1992), pp. 497–546.
* Goldberg, P. & Bar-Yosef, O., "Site formation processes in Kebara and Hayonim Caves and their significance in Levantine Prehistoric caves", in T. Akazawa, K. Aoki and O. Bar-Yosef (eds), ''Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia'', New York & London: Plenum Press, 1998, pp.?
* Albert, Rosa M., Steve Weiner, Ofer Bar-Yosef, and Liliane Meignen, "Phytoliths of the Middle Palaeolithic Deposits of Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel: Study of the Plant Materials Used for Fuel and Other Purposes", ''Journal of Archaeological Science
'' 27 (2000), pp. 931–947.
* Lev, Efraim, Kislev, Mordechai E. & Bar-Yosef, Ofer, "Mousterian Vegetal Food in Kebara Cave, Mt Carmel", ''Journal of Archaeological Science
'' 32 (2005), pp. 475–484.
- the Rothschild Memorial public gardens at Ramat HaNadiv
preserve the Kebara Cave within their boundaries for visitors
Category:Caves of Israel
Category:Prehistoric sites in Israel
Category:Archaeological type sites