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Khust (Ukrainian: Хуст, German: Chust, Hungarian: Huszt, Rusyn: Хуст, Romanian: Hust ) is a city located on the Khustets River in Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. It is near the сonfluence of the Tisa and Rika Rivers. Serving as the administrative center of Khust Raion (district), the city itself does not belong to the raion and is designated as a city of oblast significance, with the status equal to that of a raion. Population: 28,321 (2020 est.)[1]

Khust was the capital of the short-lived republic of Carpatho-Ukraine.

Origin of name

The name is most possibly related to the name of the stream Hustets or Husztica, whose meaning is "kerchief". It is also conceivable that the name of the city comes from a Romanian traditional food ingredient – husti.

There are several alternative names used for this city: Ukrainian /Rusyn: Хуст, Romanian: Hust, Hungarian: Huszt, Czech and Slovak: Chust, Yiddish: חוסט‎, German: Chust.

There is also one fairy tale about the town's name: Once a chort was walking around the town and then mountain had appeared. A moment later, it fell down on his tail. He shouted, Hvust (Transcarpathian dialect, “Хвіст” in Ukrainian, tail in English). Another chort heard "Khust" … In that way, the name of the town was formed.

History

The settlement was first mentioned as terra Huzth, in 1324.[2] Its castle, supposed to be built in 1090 by king St. Ladislaus of Hungary as a defence against the Cumans and destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Hungary, was mentioned in 1353. The town got privileges in 1329.[3]

In 1458 King Matthias imprisoned his uncle, the rebellious Mihály Szilágyi in the castle. In 1514, during György Dózsa's peasant revolt local peasants captured the castle. In 1526 the area became a part of Transylvania.

The army of Ferdinand I captured the town in 1546. In 1594 the Tartars destroyed the town, but could not take the castle. The castle was besieged in 1644 by the army of George I Rákóczi, in 1657 by the Polish, in 1661–62 by the Ottoman and Tartar hordes. Count Ferenc Rhédey, the ruling prince of Transylvania and high steward of Máramaros county died in the castle on May 13, 1667.

The castle surrendered to the Kurucs on August 17, 1703, and the independence of Transylvania was proclaimed here. It was the last castle the Habsburgs occupied when suppressing the freedom fight of the Kurucs, in 1711. The seriously damaged castle was struck by lightning and burnt down on July 3, 1766; a storm brought down its tower in 1798, it has been in ruins ever since then. Khust was renamed as Csebreny in 1882 during Magyarization process. In 1861, Rabbi Moshe Schick, established what was, at that time, the largest yeshiva in the world, with over 800 students.

In 1910 Khust had 10,292 citizens, 5,230 Ruthenians, 3,505 Hungarians and 1,535 Germans. Until the Treaty of Trianon it belonged to Hungary and was the seat of the Khust district of Máramaros county. After World War I, in summer 1919 the Rumanian troops took over the territory. But according to the St.-Germain treaty Czechoslovakia received the city, as part of newly formed Podkarpatsko ("under the Carpathians") region (Subcarpathia).[4] Czechoslovakia had to provide the region a wide autonomy, but autonomy was realised only in 1938. In Autumn 1938 an autonomous government was organised. The day after the collapse of Czechoslovakia on March 14, 1939, the Khust city government proclaimed, by the will of the local population, independence as Carpathian Ukraine on March 15, 1939. Next day, on March 16, 1939, Hungarian troops invaded Khust and claimed it as part of Hungary. On October 24, 1944, Soviet troops occupied the city, and annexed it into the Soviet Union. The Soviet government deported much of the city's German and Hungarian populations.

WWII and the Holocaust

Holocaust Victims Memorial (Holon, Israel)

Prior to 1939, Jews thrived in Khust and owned many businesses. When the city became part of Hungary in March 1939 again, many Jewish citizens were forced into labor camps. A ghetto was established, and Jews from other regions were forced to live there. Additional ghettos were established nearby in Iza and Szeklence (toda Sokyrnycia, Ukraine).[5] By April 1944[6], most Jewish residents were killed at Auschwitz.[7][8] Prior to the war, there were 8 synagogues in the city. One survives and is in use today.[5]

Interior of the Khust Synagogue

Demographics

In 2001 it had 31,900 inhabitants, including:[9]

Until the 19th century the city's population also included ethnic Romanians (800 Romanians according to the 1880 census).

Climate

Khust has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb).

Climate data for Khust
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
4.4
(39.9)
10.2
(50.4)
15.1
(59.2)
18.0
(64.4)
19.6
(67.3)
19.2
(66.6)
15.3
(59.5)
10.1
(50.2)
4.3
(39.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
9.4
(48.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
41
(1.6)
50
(2.0)
74
(2.9)
93
(3.7)
80
(3.1)
72
(2.8)
48
(1.9)
45
(1.8)
52
(2.0)
62
(2.4)
705
(27.7)
Source: Climate-Data.org[10]

Tourist sights

  • Ruins of the Khust Castle
  • Protestant fortress church 13th–14th century, Protestant since 1524, fortified in 1616, 1644, 1661 and 1670, restored in 1773 and 1888. Its belfry is from the 15th century; until 1861 it had four pinnacles.
  • Roman Catholic church (Baroque, 18th century)
  • Greek Orthodox church (18th century)

Famous people

  • Jenő Benda, writer, journalist was born here in 1882.
  • Leslie Buck (born Laszlo Büch), American business executive and Holocaust survivor, designer of the Anthora coffee cup, was born in Khust in 1922.[11][12]
  • Myroslav Dochynets, Ukrainian writer was born here in 1959.
  • Jaromír Hořec, Czech poet, writer and journalist was born here in 1921.
  • József Koller, historian of religion was born here in 1745.
  • Antonín Moskalyk, Czech film director was born here in 1930.
  • Ernő Szép, writer was born here in 1894.
  • Count József Teleki, scientist was born here on December 21, 1738.
  • Rabbi Zeev ben Moshe Feuerlicht (born 1918), studied in Romania, in yeshiva of Satu-Mare Rebbe, during the Liberation of Czechoslovakia from Nazi Germany he joined as an active fighter the Gen. Ludvík Svoboda Army, served in Prague synagogue Alt-neu Shul as a Rabbi, educator and shochet. Rabbi Feuerlicht should be credited for the survival of the Orthodox community in Czechoslovakia after WWII.
  • Mikhailo Deyak, artist born in Zolotarevo

Gallery

Carpatho-Ukraine.

The name is most possibly related to the name of the stream Hustets or Husztica, whose meaning is "kerchief". It is also conceivable that the name of the city comes from a Romanian traditional food ingredient – husti.

There are several alternative names used for this city: Ukrainian /Rusyn: Хуст, Romanian: Hust, Hungarian: Huszt, Czech and Slovak: Chust, Yiddish: חוסט‎, German: Chust.

There is also one fairy tale about the town's name: Once a chort was walking around the town and then mountain had appeared. A moment later, it fell down on his tail. He shouted, Hvust (Transcarpathian dialect, “Хвіст” in Ukrainian, tail in English). Another chort heard "Khust" … In that way, the name of the town was formed.

History

The settlement was first mentioned as terra Huzth, in 1324.[2] Its castle, supposed to be built in 1090 by king St. Ladislaus of Hungary as a defence against the Cumans and destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Hungary, was mentioned in 1353. The town got privileges in 1329.[3]

In 1458 King Matthias imprisoned his uncle, the rebellious Mih

There are several alternative names used for this city: Ukrainian /Rusyn: Хуст, Romanian: Hust, Hungarian: Huszt, Czech and Slovak: Chust, Yiddish: חוסט‎, German: Chust.

There is also one fairy tale about the town's name: Once a chort was walking around the town and then mountain had appeared. A moment later, it fell down on his tail. He shouted, Hvust (Transcarpathian dialect, “Хвіст” in Ukrainian, tail in English). Another chort heard "Khust" … In that way, the name of the town was formed.

The settlement was first mentioned as terra Huzth, in 1324.[2] Its castle, supposed to be built in 1090 by king St. Ladislaus of Hungary as a defence against the Cumans and destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Hungary, was mentioned in 1353. The town got privileges in 1329.[3]

In 1458 King Matthias imprisoned his uncle, the rebellious Mihály Szilágyi in the castle.

In 1458 King Matthias imprisoned his uncle, the rebellious Mihály Szilágyi in the castle. In 1514, during György Dózsa's peasant revolt local peasants captured the castle. In 1526 the area became a part of Transylvania.

The army of Ferdinand I captured the town in 1546. In 1594 the Tartars destroyed the town, but could not take the castle. The castle was besieged in 1644 by the army of George I Rákóczi, in 1657 by the Polish, in 1661–62 by the Ottoman and Tartar hordes. Count Ferenc Rhédey, the ruling prince of Transylvania and high steward of Máramaros county died in the castle on May 13, 1667.

The castle surrendered to the Kurucs on August 17, 1703, and the independence of Transylvania was proclaimed here. It was the last castle the Habsburgs occupied when suppressing the freedom fight of the Kurucs, in 1711. The seriously damaged castle was struck by lightning and burnt down on July 3, 1766; a storm brought down its tower in 1798, it has been in ruins ever since then. Khust was renamed as Csebreny in 1882 during Magyarization process. In 1861, Rabbi Moshe Schick, established what was, at that time, the largest yeshiva in the world, with over 800 students.

In 1910 Khust had 10,292 citizens, 5,230 Ruthenians, 3,505 Hungarians and 1,535 Germans. Until the Treaty of Trianon it belonged to Hungary and was the seat of the Khust district of Máramaros county. After World War I, in summer 1919 the Rumanian troops took over the territory. But according to the St.-Germain treaty Czechoslovakia received the city, as part of newly formed Podkarpatsko ("under the Carpathians") region (Subcarpathia).[4] Czechoslovakia had to provide the region a wide autonomy, but autonomy was realised only in 1938. In Autumn 1938 an autonomous government was organised. The day after the collapse of Czechoslovakia on March 14, 1939, the Khust city government proclaimed, by the will of the local population, independence as Carpathian Ukraine on March 15, 1939. Next day, on March 16, 1939, Hungarian troops invaded Khust and claimed it as part of Hungary. On October 24, 1944, Soviet troops occupied the city, and annexed it into the Soviet Union. The Soviet government deported much of the city's German and Hungarian populations.

Prior to 1939, Jews thrived in Khust and owned many businesses. When the city became part of Hungary in March 1939 again, many Jewish citizens were forced into labor camps. A ghetto was established, and Jews from other regions were forced to live there. Additional ghettos were established nearby in Iza and Szeklence (toda Sokyrnycia, Ukraine).[5] By April 1944[6], most Jewish residents were killed at Auschwitz.[7][8] Prior to the war, there were 8 synagogues in the city. One survives and is in use today.[5]

Interior of the Khust Synagogue

Demographics

In 2001 it had 31,900 inhabitants, including:[9]

Until the 19th century the city's population also included ethnic Romanians (800 Romanians according to the 1880 census).

Climate

Khust has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb).

Until the 19th century the city's population also included ethnic Romanians (800 Romanians according to the 1880 census).

Climate

Khust has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb).

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Climate data for Khust
Month Jan Feb Mar