Lemkos (Lemko: Лeмкы, Lemkŷ; Ukrainian: Лемки, Lemky; Polish: Łemkowie; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland).

Their affiliation with other ethnicities is controversial, although individual Lemkos generally self-identify as a sub-group of Rusyns and/or Ukrainians. Other ethnic groups identifying as Ruthenians and/or Ukrainian include the Boykos and Hutsuls. Members of these groups have increasingly rejected official ethnic designations such as Verkhovyntsi (Highlanders), and/or as a sub-group of Ukrainets (ethnic Ukrainian), in favor of the Rusyn identity; a trend that can be observed in official census statistics in Slovakia.[4][failed verification]

The spoken language of the Lemkos, which has a code of rue under ISO 639-3, has been variously described as a language in its own right, a dialect of Rusyn or a dialect of Ukrainian. In Ukraine, almost all Lemkos speak both Lemko and standard Ukrainian (according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census).[3] Ukraine (unlike neighboring countries) denies Lemkos separate ethnic and linguistic status.[5] In the Polish Census of 2011, 11,000 people declared Lemko nationality, of whom 6,000 declared only Lemko nationality, 4,000 declared double national identity – Lemko-Polish, and 1,000 declared Lemko identity together with a non-Polish identity.[2]

Notable Lemkos