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The list of cannon by caliber contains all types of cannon through the ages listed in decreasing caliber size. For the purpose of this list, the development of large-calibre artillery can be divided into three periods, based on the kind of projectiles used, due to their dissimilar characteristics, and being practically incommensurable in terms of their bore size:

  • Stone balls: Cannon of extraordinary bore, which fired stone balls, were first introduced at the turn of the 14th to 15th century in Western Europe. Following a logic of increasing performance through size, they had evolved from small handguns to giant wrought-iron or cast-bronze bombards within a span of just several decades.[1]
  • Iron balls and shot: By the 16th century, however, a general switch from stone balls to smaller, but much more effective iron projectiles was in full swing. This and the parallel tendency towards standardized, rapid-firing cannon made the enormously costly and logistically demanding giant guns soon obsolete in the European theatre (with the exception of the odd showpiece).[2]
  • Explosive shells: In the Industrial Age, artillery was again revolutionized by the introduction of explosive shells, beginning with the Paixhans guns. Breakthroughs in metallurgy and modes of production were followed up by new experimentation with super-sized caliber weapons, culminating in the steel colossi of the two World Wars. In the post-war era, the development of extremely overpowered artillery was gradually abandoned in favour of missile technology, while heavy guns are still demanded by various arms of the service.

Cannon by caliber

Stone balls

Heyday: 15th to 16th centuries

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 82.5–90 cm.
  2. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 76–88 cm.
  3. ^ Bown[4] indicates a larger bore of 36 in (914 mm), but Hollenback[5] says that Kritoboulos, a contemporary source, indicates a circumference of 12 spans and concludes that in this case the smallest of three possible sizes of span is the correct unit, giving 0.745 m for the bore. Hollenback also notes that granite cannonballs dating from the siege of Constantinople had a diameter of 0.711  and could have been shot from this weapon using a wooden sabot.
  4. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 67–80 cm.
  5. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 45–58 cm.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Schmidtchen 1977b, pp. 228–230
  2. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, pp. 153–161
  3. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, p. 162; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
  4. ^ Stephen R. Bown (2005). A Most Damnable Invention: Dynamite, Nitrates, and the Making of the Modern World. Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-04524-1.
  5. ^ George M. Hollenback (2002), "Notes on the Design and Construction of Urban's Giant Bombard", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 26 (1): 284–291, doi:10.1179/030701302806932231
  6. ^ Schmidtchen 1977b, p. 222; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
  7. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, p. 164; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
  8. ^ Kirov Plant

    A 406 mm/50 B-37 naval gun in MP-10 test mount 406 406 mm/50 B-37 naval gun for Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships Naval gun 1937  Soviet Union Barrikady Plant, Stalingrad A cutaway of a turret mounting 16-inch guns 406 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun for the Iowa-class battleships Naval gun 1943  United States Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C.

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 82.5–90 cm.
    2. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 76–88 cm.
    3. ^ Bown[4] indicates a larger bore of 36 in (914 mm), but Hollenback[5] says that Kritoboulos, a contemporary source, indicates a circumference of 12 spans and concludes that in this case the smallest of three possible sizes of span is the correct unit, giving 0.745 m for the bore. Hollenback also notes that granite cannonballs dating from the siege of Constantinople had a diameter of 0.711  and could have been shot from this weapon using a wooden sabot.
    4. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 67–80 cm.
    5. ^ The bombard has a conical bore of 45–58 cm.

    Footnotes

    1. ^ Schmidtchen 1977b, pp. 228–230
    2. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, pp. 153–161
    3. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, p. 162; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
    4. ^ Stephen R. Bown (2005). A Most Damnable Invention: Dynamite, Nitrates, and the Making of the Modern World. Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-04524-1.
    5. ^ George M. Hollenback (2002), "Notes on the Design and Construction of Urban's Giant Bombard", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 26 (1): 284–291, doi:10.1179/030701302806932231
    6. ^ Schmidtchen 1977b, p. 222; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
    7. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, p. 164; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
    8. ^ Royal Armouries Archived 2011-08-05 at the Wayback Machine
    9. ^ E. Rocchi, Le artiglierie italiane nel Rinascimento, Rome, 1899
    10. ^ L. Beltrami, La Galeazesca Vittoriosa, Milan, 1916
    11. ^ Schmidtchen 1977b, p. 218; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
    12. ^ Schmidtchen 1977a, p. 166; ball diameter is 20 mm less (p. 171, Fn. 41).
    13. ^
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