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Magna Graecia (/ˌmæɡnə ˈɡrsjə, ˈɡrʃə/, US: /ˌmæɡnə ˈɡrʃə/; Latin meaning "Great Greece", Ancient Greek: Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Italian: Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily; these regions were extensively populated by Greek settlers.[1] The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization which left a lasting imprint on Italy such as in the culture of ancient Rome. They also influenced the native peoples, especially the Sicilian Sicels, who became hellenised after they adopted the Greek culture as their own.

The term Magna Graecia first appears in Polybius' Histories.[2][3] The Roman poet Ovid notably referred to the south of Italy as such in his poem Fasti.

Antiquity

According to Strabo's Geographica, the colonization of Magna Graecia had already begun by the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries.[4]

In the 8th and 7th century BC, due to demographic crises (famine, overcrowding, etc.), stasis, a developing need for new commercial outlets and ports, and expulsion from their homeland after wars, Greeks began to settle in southern Italy.[5] Colonies began to be established all over the Mediterranean and Black Seas (with the exception of Northwestern Africa, in the sphere of influence of Carthage), including in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called this area Magna Graecia (Latin for "Great Greece") since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks. Ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia, Campania and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions.[citation needed]

With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed and later interacted with the native Italic civilisations. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was adopted by the Etruscans; the Old Italic alphabet subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world.

These Hellenic colonies became very rich and powerful, and some still stand today such as Neapolis ("New City", now Naples), Syracuse, Akragas (Agrigento), Taras (Taranto), Rhegion (Reggio Calabria), or Kroton (Crotone).[citation needed]

The first Greek city to be absorbed into the Roman Republic was Neapolis in 327 BC.[6] The other Greek cities in Italy followed during the Samnite Wars and the Pyrrhic War; Taras was the last to fall in 272. Sicily was conquered by Rome during the First Punic War. Only Syracuse remained independent until 212, because its king Hiero II was a devoted ally of the Romans. His grandson Hieronymus however made an alliance with Hannibal, which prompted the Romans to besiege the city, which fell in 212, despite the machines of Archimedes.[citation needed]

Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th-5th century BC

List of Hellenic Poleis in Italy

This is a list of the 22 poleis (city states) in Italy, according to Mogens Herman Hansen.[7] It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a polis structure.

poleis (city states) in Italy, according to Mogens Herman Hansen.[7] It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a polis structure.

Ancient name(s) Location Modern name(s) Foundation date Mother city Founder(s)
poleis (city states) in Sicily, according to Mogens Herman Hansen.[8] It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a polis structure.

Ancient name(s) Location Modern name(s) Foundation date Mother city Founder(s)
Abakainon Metropolitan City of Messina (abandoned) no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Adranon Metropolitan City of Catania Adrano c.400 BC Syrakousai Dionysios I
Agyrion Province of Enna Agira no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Aitna Metropolitan City of Catania on the site of Katane 476 BC Syrakousai Hieron
Akragas Province of Agrigento Agrigento c.580 BC Gela Aristonoos and Pystilos
Akrai Province of Syracuse near Palazzolo Acreide 664 BC Syrakousai Unknown
Alaisa Metropolitan City of Messina Tusa 403–402 BC Herbita Archonides of Herbita
Alontion, Haluntium (Roman name) Metropolitan City of Messina San Marco d’Alunzio no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Apollonia Metropolitan City of Messina Monte Vecchio near San Fratello 405–367 BC Syrakousai Possibly Dionysios I
Engyon Province of Enna Troina? no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Euboia Metropolitan City of Catania Licodia Eubea 7th century BC, perhaps late 8th century BC Leontinoi Unknown
Galeria Unknown (abandoned) no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Gela Province of Caltanissetta Gela 689–688 BC Rhodes (Lindos), Cretans Antiphemos of Rhodes and Entimos the Cretan
Heloron Province of Syracuse (abandoned) Unknown Syrakousai Unknown
Henna Province of Enna Enna no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Herakleia Minoa Province of Agrigento Cattolica Eraclea after 628 BC Selinous, Sparta refounded by Euryleon after c.510 BC
Herakleia unlocated in Western Sicily (abandoned) c.510 BC Sparta Dorieus
Herbessos Province of Enna Montagna di Marzo? no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Herbita Unknown (abandoned) no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Himera Province of Palermo Termini Imerese 648 BC Zankle, exiles from Syrakousai Eukleides, Simos and Sakon
Hippana Province of Palermo Monte dei Cavalli no Greek founder (indigenous settlement that became Hellenised)
Imachara Metropolitan City of Catania Mendolito no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellenised)
Kallipolis Unknown (abandoned) late 8th century BC Naxos (Sicily) Unknown
Kamarina Province of Ragusa Santa Croce Camerina c.598 BC Syrakousai, Korinth Daskon of Syracuse and Menekolos of Corinth
Kasmenai Province of Syracuse (abandoned) 644–643 BC Syrakousai Unknown
Katane Metropolitan City of Catania Catania 729 BC Naxos (Sicily) Euarchos
Kentoripa Province of Enna Centuripe no Greek founder (Sicels who became Hellen

During the Early Middle Ages, following the disastrous Gothic War, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks may have come to Southern Italy from Greece and Asia Minor, as Southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire. Although possible, the archaeological evidence shows no trace of new arrivals of Greek peoples, only a division between barbarian newcomers, and Greco-Roman locals. The iconoclast emperor Leo III appropriated lands that had been granted to the Papacy in southern Italy and the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire continued to govern the area in the form of the Catapanate of Italy through the Middle Ages, well after northern Italy fell to the Lombards.[9]

At the time of the Normans' late medieval conquest of southern Italy and Sicily (in the late 12th century), the Salento peninsula (the "heel" of Italy) and up to one third of Sicily was still Greek speaking (concentrated in the Val Demone).[10] At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, and its speakers were known as Byzantine Greeks. The resultant fusion of local Byzantine Greek culture with Norman and Arab culture (from the Arab occupation of Sicily) gave rise to Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture on Sicily.

A remnant of this influence can be found in the survival of the Greek language in some villages of the above mentioned Salento peninsula (the "heel" of Italy). This living dialact of Greek, known locally as Griko, is found in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is considered by linguistics to be a descendant of Byzantine Greek, which had been the majority language of Salento through the Middle Ages, combining also some ancient Doric and modern Italian elements. There is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia.[11]

Modern Italy

Although many of the Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy were entirely Latinized during the Middle Ages, pockets of Greek culture and language remained and survived into modernity partly because of continuous migration between southern Italy and the Greek mainland. One example is the Griko people in Apulia, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. Their working practices have been passed down through generations through storytelling and allowing the observation of work.[12] The Italian parliament recognizes the Griko people as an ethnolinguistic minority under the official name of Minoranze linguistiche Grike dell'Etnia Griko-Calabrese e Salentina.[13]

Greek nobles started taking refuge in Italy following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[14] Greeks returned to the region in the 16th and 17th centuries in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire. Especially after the end of the Siege of Coron (1534), large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property. They were granted special privileges and tax exemptions.[citation needed]

Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese. The Maniots (their name originating from the Greek word mania)[15] were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today.[16] Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica in the 17th century under the protection of the Republic of Genoa.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Henry Fanshawe Tozer (30 October 2014). A History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-108-07875-7.
  2. ^ Polybius, ii. 39.
  3. ^ A. J. Graham, "The colonial expansion of Greece", in John Boardman et al., Cambridge Ancient History, vol. III, part 3, p. 94.
  4. ^ Strabo. "I, Section I". Geographica (in Greek). VI.
  5. ^ Luca Cerchiai; Lorena Jannelli; Fausto Longo (2004). The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily. Getty Publications. pp. 14–18. ISBN 978-0-89236-751-1.
  6. ^ Heitland, William Emerton (1911). A Short History of the Roman Republic. The University Press. pp. 72. Roman Republic Neapolis in 327 BC.
  7. ^ Hansen & Nielsen (eds.), Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, pp. 249–320.
  8. ^ Hansen & Nielsen (eds.), Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, pp. 189–248.
  9. ^ Brown, T. S. (1979). "The Church of Ravenna and the Imperial Administration in the Seventh Century". The English Historical Review. 94 (370): 5. JSTOR 567155.
  10. ^ Loud, G. A. (2007). The Latin Church in Norman Italy. Cambridge University Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-521-25551-6. At the end of the twelfth century ... While in Apulia Greeks were in a majority – and indeed present in any numbers at all – only in the Salento peninsula in the extreme south, at the time of the conquest they had an overwhelming preponderance in Lucaina and central and southern Calabria, as well as comprising anything up to a third of the population of Sicily, concentrated especially in the north-east of the island, the Val Demone.
  11. ^ Rohlfs, Gerhard (1967). "Greek Remnants in Southern Italy". The Classical Journal. 62 (4): 164–9. JSTOR 3295569.
  12. ^ Rocco Agrifoglio (29 August 2015). Knowledge Preservation Through Community of Practice: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence. Springer. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-319-22234-9.
  13. ^ Lapo Mola; Ferdinando Pennarola; Stefano Za (16 October 2014). From Information to Smart Society: Environment, Politics and Economics. Springer. p. 108. ISBN 978-3-319-09450-2.
  14. ^ Nanō Chatzēdakē; Museo Correr (1993). From Candia to Venice: Greek icons in Italy, 15th-16th centuries : Museo Correr, Venice, 17 September-30 October, 1993. Foundation for Hellenic Culture. p. 18.
  15. ^ Greece. Lonely Planet. 2008. p. 204.
  16. ^ Time. Time Incorporated. 1960. p. 4.
  17. ^ Greece. Michelin Tyre. 1991. p. 142. ISBN 978-2-06-701520-3.Normans' late medieval conquest of southern Italy and Sicily (in the late 12th century), the Salento peninsula (the "heel" of Italy) and up to one third of Sicily was still Greek speaking (concentrated in the Val Demone).[10] At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, and its speakers were known as Byzantine Greeks. The resultant fusion of local Byzantine Greek culture with Norman and Arab culture (from the Arab occupation of Sicily) gave rise to Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture on Sicily.

    A remnant of this influence can be found in the survival of the Greek language in some villages of the above mentioned Salento peninsula (the "heel" of Italy). This living dialact of Greek, known locally as Griko, is found in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is considered by linguistics to be a descendant of Byzantine Greek, which had been the majority language of Salento through the Middle Ages, combining also some ancient Doric and modern Italian elements. There is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia.[11]

    Although many of the Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy were entirely Latinized during the Middle Ages, pockets of Greek culture and language remained and survived into modernity partly because of continuous migration between southern Italy and the Greek mainland. One example is the Griko people in Apulia, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. Their working practices have been passed down through generations through storytelling and allowing the observation of work.[12] The Italian parliament recognizes the Griko people as an ethnolinguistic minority under the official name of Minoranze linguistiche Grike dell'Etnia Griko-Calabrese e Salentina.[13]

    Greek nobles started taking refuge in Italy following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[14] Greeks returned

    Greek nobles started taking refuge in Italy following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[14] Greeks returned to the region in the 16th and 17th centuries in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire. Especially after the end of the Siege of Coron (1534), large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property. They were granted special privileges and tax exemptions.[citation needed]

    Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese. The Maniots (their name originating from the Greek word mania)[15] were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today.[16] Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica in the 17th century under the protection of the Republic of Genoa.[17]