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Muslims
Prayer in Cairo 1865.jpg
Muslims praying in 1865 Cairo by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Total population
c.1.8 billion worldwide (2020)[1][2][3]
Founder
Muhammad[4]
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia236,800,000[5]
 Pakistan208,800,000[6]
 India194,600,000[7]
 Bangladesh151,900,000[8]
 Nigeria99,100,000[9]
 Egypt95,000,000[10]
 Iran82,900,000[11]
 Turkey82,800,000[12]
 China60,000,000—80,000,000Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).[29] The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic word meaning "submitter" (to God).[30]

The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Arabic: اللهAllāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus;[31] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)[32] and that the Quran is the final unaltered revelation from God.[33]

As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims.[34] By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle EastNorth Africa (MENA),[35] 81% in Central Asia,[36][37] 65% in the Caucasus,[38][39][40][41][42][43] 40% in Southeast Asia,[44][45] 31% in South Asia,[46][47] 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa,[48] 25% in AsiaOceania,[49] around 6% in Europe,[50] and 1% in the Americas.[51][52][53][54]

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%)[55] and Shia.[18] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;[56] 31% of Muslims live in South Asia,[57] the largest population of Muslims in the world;[58] 20% in the Middle East–North Africa,[59] where it is the dominant religion;[60] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[61] Muslims are the overwhelming majority in Central Asia,[62] the majority in the Caucasus[63][64] and widespread in Southeast Asia.[65] India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries.[66] Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, China, and Europe.[67][68][69] Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.[70][71][72]

Qualifier

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salah), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[73][74]

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[75] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "I testify that there is no god [worthy of worship] except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[76]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but Allah), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[77] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[78] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[79]

In Shia Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to "Ali is the wali of God".[80]

Etymology

The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[81]) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".[82][83] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة‎) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"[84] ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات).

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central and South Asia. In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[85] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.[86] Other obsolete terms include Muslimite[87] and Muslimist.[88]

Meaning

The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said:

A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God...Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.[89]

Other prophets

The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat (Torah) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David and the Injil (Gospel) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.

Demographics

Arabic: اللهAllāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus;[31] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)[32] and that the Quran is the final unaltered revelation from God.[33]

As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims.[34] By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle EastNorth Africa (MENA),[35] 81% in Central Asia,[36][37] 65% in the Caucasus,[38][39][40][41][42][43] 40% in Southeast Asia,[44][45] 31% in South Asia,[46][47] 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa,[48] 25% in AsiaOceania,[49] around 6% in Europe,[50] and 1% in the Americas.[51][52][53][54]

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%)[55] and Shia.[18] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;[56] 31% of Muslims live in South Asia,[57] the largest population of Muslims in the world;[58] 20% in the Middle East–North Africa,[59] where it is the dominant religion;[60] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[61] Muslims are the overwhelming majority in Central Asia,[62] the majority in the Caucasus[63][64] and widespread in Southeast Asia.[65] India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries.[66] Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, China, and Europe.[67][68][69] Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.[70][71][72]

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salah), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[73][74]

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[75] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "I testify that there is no god [worthy of worship] except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[76]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but Allah), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[77] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[75] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "I testify that there is no god [worthy of worship] except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[76]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but Allah), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[77] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[78] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[79]

In Shia Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to "Ali is the wali of God".[80]

The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[81]) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".[82][83] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة‎) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"[84] ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات).

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Muss

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central and South Asia. In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[85] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.[86] Other obsolete terms include Muslimite[87] and Muslimist.[88]

The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: