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In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Orthorhombic lattices result from stretching a cubic lattice along two of its orthogonal pairs by two different factors, resulting in a rectangular prism with a rectangular base (''a'' by ''b'') and height (''c''), such that ''a'', ''b'', and ''c'' are distinct. All three bases intersect at 90° angles, so the three lattice vectors remain mutually orthogonal.

Bravais lattices Two-dimensional

In two dimensions there are two orthorhombic Bravais lattices: primitive rectangular and centered rectangular. The primitive rectangular lattice can also be described by a centered rhombic unit cell, while the centered rectangular lattice can also be described by a primitive rhombic unit cell.

Three-dimensional

In three dimensions, there are four orthorhombic Bravais lattices: primitive orthorhombic, base-centered orthorhombic, body-centered orthorhombic, and face-centered orthorhombic. In the orthorhombic system there is a rarely used second choice of crystal axes that results in a unit cell with the shape of a right rhombic prism;See , row oC, column Primitive, where the cell parameters are given as a1 = a2, α = β = 90° it can be constructed because the rectangular two-dimensional base layer can also be described with rhombic axes. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices swap in centering type, while the same thing happens with the body-centered and face-centered lattices. Note that the length $a$ in the lower row is not the same as in the upper row, as can be seen in the figure in the section on two-dimensional lattices. For the first and third column above, $a$ of the second row equals $\sqrt$ of the first row, and for the second and fourth column it equals half of this.

Crystal classes

The ''orthorhombic crystal system'' class names, examples, Schönflies notation, Hermann-Mauguin notation, point groups, International Tables for Crystallography space group number, orbifold notation, type, and space groups are listed in the table below.

See also

*Crystal structure *Overview of all space groups

References

Further reading

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Orthorhombic Crystal System Category:Crystal systems