The Qadan culture (13,000-9,000 BC) was an ancient culture
evidence suggests, originated in Upper Egypt
(present day south Egypt
) approximately 15,000 years ago.
[Phillipson, DW: ''African Archaeology'' page 149. Cambridge University Press, 2005.] [Shaw, I & Jameson, R: ''A Dictionary of Archaeology'', page 136. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 2002.]
This way of life is estimated to have persisted for approximately 4,000 years, and was characterized by hunting
, as well as a unique approach to food gathering that incorporated the preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains
Systematic efforts were made by the Qadan people to water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows.
Sites from this period span from the Second Cataract of the Nile
to Tushka, situated approximately 250 kilometers upriver from Aswan
In archaeological terms, the Qadan culture is generally viewed as a cluster of Mesolithic
Stage communities living in Nubia
in the upper Nile Valley
prior to 9000 BC. At a time of relatively high water levels in the Nile, it is characterized by a diverse stone tool industry that is taken to represent increasing degrees of specialization and locally differentiated regional groupings.
[Darvill, T: ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology'', Copyright © 2002, 2003 by Oxford University Press.]
Large numbers of grinding stone
s and blades have been found with glossy films of silica
on them, which could possibly be the result of cutting grass stems on their surfaces. There is some evidence of conflict between the groups, suggesting periods of invasion or intense inter-tribal war
In fact, about 40 percent of individuals buried in the Jebel Sahaba
cemetery near the border of Sudan
on the Nile river show signs of fatal wounds caused by projectiles,
from weapons such as spear
s, darts, or arrows
. The remains found in the cemeteries suggest that ritual burials
The Qadan economy was based on fishing
, and, as mentioned, the extensive use of wild grain.
Category:Mesolithic cultures of Africa
Category:Archaeological cultures in Egypt
Category:Archaeology of Sudan