The apostle Paul met with Stoics during his stay in Athens, reported in Acts 17:16–18. In his letters, Paul reflected heavily from his knowledge of Stoic philosophy, using Stoic terms and metaphors to assist his new Gentile converts in their understanding of Christianity.[50] Stoic influence can also be seen in the works of St. Ambrose, Marcus Minucius Felix, and Tertullian.[51]

The The Fathers of the Church regarded Stoicism as a "pagan philosophy";[52][53] nonetheless, early Christian writers employed some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism. Examples include the terms "logos", "virtue", "Spirit", and "conscience".[28] But the parallels go well beyond the sharing and borrowing of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature or God, a sense of the innate depravity—or "persistent evil"—of humankind,[28] and the futility and temporary nature of worldly possessions and attachments. Both encourage Ascesis with respect to the passions and inferior emotions, such as lust, and envy, so that the higher possibilities of one's humanity can be awakened and developed.

Stoic writings such as Meditations by Marcus Aurelius have been highly regarded by many Christians throughout the centuries. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church accept the Stoic ideal of dispassion to this day.

Middle and Roman Stoics taught that sex is just within marriage, for unitive and procreative purposes only.[54][55] This teaching is accepted by the Catholic Church to this day.[56]

Saint Ambrose of Milan was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology.