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Tell al-'Ubaid ( ar|العبيد) is a low, relatively small tell (settlement mound) west of nearby Ur in southern Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate. The majority of the remains are from the Chalcolithic Ubaid period, for which Tell al-'Ubaid is the type site, with an Early Dynastic temple and cemetery at the highest point.

History of archaeological research

The site was first worked by Henry Hall of the British Museum in 1919. Later, C. L. Woolley excavated there in 1923 and 1924, followed by Seton Lloyd and Pinhas Delougaz in 1937, the latter working for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Tell al-'Ubaid and its environment

Today, Tell al-'Ubaid lies from the Persian Gulf, but the shoreline lay much closer to the site during the Ubaid period. The tell, or settlement mound, is an oblong measuring approximately on a roughly north-south axis. It extends about above the current surface. The excavated Early Dynastic temple is located on the northern edge of the site. A cemetery was also found with 96 graves, mostly from the Early Dynastic Period.Harriet P. Martin, The Early Dynastic Cemetery at al-'Ubaid, a Re-Evaluation, Iraq, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 145-185, 1982

Occupation history

The lower level of the site featured large amounts of Ubaid pottery and associated kilns. Evidence for Ubaid period pottery manufacture has also been observed on the surface of the site. The size of the surface scatter indicates that pottery production was a specialized craft, and this confirms finds from other Ubaid sites like Eridu. The site also yielded a cemetery and some finds from the Jemdet Nasr period. The temple of Ninhursag at the summit was on a cleared oval similar to that at Khafajah. The wall surrounding the temple was built by Shulgi of the Ur III Empire.

Gallery

File:Stone statue of Kurlil Early Dynastic III 2500 BC Tell Al-'Ubaid, Iraq.jpg|Stone statue of Kurlil, Early Dynastic III, 2500 BC Tell Al-'Ubaid File:Parts of mosaic columns from the entrance to the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg|Parts of mosaic columns from the entrance to the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum File:Reclining cow, part of a frieze once decorated the facade of the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg|Recumbent cow, part of a frieze once decorated the facade of the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum File:Sumerian scene, milking cows and making dairy products. From the facade of the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg|Sumerian scene, milking cows and making dairy products. From the facade of the Temple of Ninhursag at Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq, 2800-2600 BCE. Iraq Museum

See also

*Cities of the Ancient Near East *Copper Bull *Tell al-'Ubaid Copper Lintel

References



External links


Conservation Treatment of a 3rd Millennium BCE Mosaic Column from Al ‘UbaidReport on excavations at Tell al'Ubaid
{{DEFAULTSORT:Tell al-'Ubaid Category:Archaeological sites in Iraq Category:Former populated places in Iraq Category:Dhi Qar Governorate Category:Archaeological type sites Category:Ubaid period Category:Tells (archaeology) Category:7th millennium BC