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The Tsardom of Vidin (Bulgarian: Видинско царство, Vidinsko Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state centred in the city of Vidin.

History

In 1257 the local lord Rostislav Mikhailovich was crowned as Tsar of Bulgaria in Tarnovo, but soon withdrew to Vidin.

By early 1290s Serbia expanded towards the vicinity of Vidin. Threatened by Serbian expansion, Shishman failed to repel the brothers forces, and accepted Serbian suzerainty.[1] Serbian rule lasted until Serbian king Stefan Milutin´s death, in 1321. As Milutin left no testament, after his death, in Serbia occurred a period of civil war with Stefan Dečanski, Stefan Konstantin and Stefan Vladislav II fighting for power. Shishman took advantage of this situation, set free from Serbian rule, and returned to Bulgarian orbit. In 1323 Shishman was chosen to be Bulgarian tsar. Shishman made an anti-Serbian treaty with the Byzantines, however, after Serbian victory over Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbazhd in 1330, Bulgaria lay militarily crippled and politically subordinated to Serbia's interests.[2]

In 1356, Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander isolated Vidin from the Bulgarian monarchy and appointed his son Ivan Stratsimir (1356–1396) as absolute ruler of the domain of Vidin.

In 1365, the state was occupied by Hungarian crusaders, but the occupation was short-lived. Although the initial campaign was not entirely successful because the Hungarians seized the city back, the ensuing negotiations between the Kingdom of Hungary and Ivan Alexander's allies, Vladislav I Vlaicu and Dobrotitsa, the despot of the semi-independent Dobrujan Principality of Karvuna, led to the return of the city to Bulgarian possession. It is thought that Ivan Sratsimir was reinstalled as the region's ruler in the autumn of 1369. In 1393 the whole of Bulgaria, along with the rest of the surrounding region, fell to the Ottoman Empire. This brought an end to Bulgaria's medieval state empire. Vidin was now the only region controlled by the indigenous Bulgarian population and not the invading Ottoman Turks.

The Ottomans went on to conquer the despotates of Dobruja, Prilep and Velbazhd as well. Vidin's independence did not last long. In 1396, Stratsimir contributed soldiers to assist the Christian nations' bid to overturn the Ottoman Empire. Following defeat at the hands of the Ottomans outside the city of Nicopolis, Vidin finally fell under the sphere of the Ottomans led by Bayezid I.[3][4]

Princes and Tsars of Vidin

References

  1. ^ The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism by D. Hupchick, page 88
  2. ^ The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism by D. Hupchick, page 89
  3. ^ A Concise History Of Bulgaria, Cambridge Concise Histories, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 05216163

    In 1257 the local lord Rostislav Mikhailovich was crowned as Tsar of Bulgaria in Tarnovo, but soon withdrew to Vidin.

    By early 1290s Serbia expanded towards the vicinity of Vidin. Threatened by Serbian expansion, Shishman failed to repel the brothers forces, and accepted Serbian suzerainty.[1] Serbian rule lasted until Serbian king Stefan Milutin´s death, in 1321. As Milutin left no testament, after his death, in Serbia occurred a period of civil war with Stefan Dečanski, Stefan Konstantin and Stefan Vladislav II fighting for power. Shishman took advantage of this situation, set free from Serbian rule, and returned to Bulgarian orbit. In 1323 Shishman was chosen to be Bulgarian tsar. Shishman made an anti-Serbian treaty with the Byzantines, however, after Serbian victory over Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbazhd in 1330, Bulgaria lay mil

    By early 1290s Serbia expanded towards the vicinity of Vidin. Threatened by Serbian expansion, Shishman failed to repel the brothers forces, and accepted Serbian suzerainty.[1] Serbian rule lasted until Serbian king Stefan Milutin´s death, in 1321. As Milutin left no testament, after his death, in Serbia occurred a period of civil war with Stefan Dečanski, Stefan Konstantin and Stefan Vladislav II fighting for power. Shishman took advantage of this situation, set free from Serbian rule, and returned to Bulgarian orbit. In 1323 Shishman was chosen to be Bulgarian tsar. Shishman made an anti-Serbian treaty with the Byzantines, however, after Serbian victory over Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbazhd in 1330, Bulgaria lay militarily crippled and politically subordinated to Serbia's interests.[2]

    In 1356, Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander isolated Vidin from the Bulgarian monarchy and appointed his son Ivan Stratsimir (1356–1396) as absolute ruler of the domain of Vidin.

    In 1365, the state was occupied by Hungarian crusaders, but the occupation was short-lived. Although the initial campaign was not entirely successful because the Hungarians seized the city back, the ensuing negotiations between the Kingdom of Hungary and Ivan Alexander's allies, Vladislav I Vlaicu and Dobrotitsa, the despot of the semi-independent Dobrujan Principality of Karvuna, led to the return of the city to Bulgarian possession. It is thought that Ivan Sratsimir was reinstalled as the region's ruler in the autumn of 1369. In 1393 the whole of Bulgaria, along with the rest of the surrounding region, fell to the Ottoman Empire. This brought an end to Bulgaria's medieval state empire. Vidin was now the only region controlled by the indigenous Bulgarian population and not the invading Ottoman Turks.

    The Ottomans went on to conquer the despotates of Dobruja, Prilep and Velbazhd as well. Vidin's independence did not last long. In 1396, Stratsimir contributed soldiers to assist the Christian nations' bid to overturn the Ottoman Empire. Following defeat at the hands of the Ottomans outside the city of Nicopolis, Vidin finally fell under the sphere of the Ottomans led by Bayezid I.[3][4]

    De facto independent Bulgarian states from the Second Empire

    Administration
    Important rulers

    First Bulgarian Empire

    AsparukhTervelKrumOmurtagBoris ISimeon IPeter ISamuel

    Second Bulgarian Empire

    Ivan Asen IKaloyanIvan Asen IIKonstantin TihMichael ShishmanIvan Alexander

    Economy


    Krum of BulgariaOmurtag of BulgariaConstantine I of Bulgaria

    Conflicts
    Major battles

    First Bulgarian Empire

    Battle of OngalSiege of ConstantinopleBattle of MarcellaeBattle of PliskaBattle of Southern BuhBattle of AchelousBattle of the Gates of TrajanBattle of KleidionBattle of Dyrrhachium

    Second Bulgarian Empire

    Battle of TryavnaBattle of AdrianopleBattle of KlokotnitsaBattle of SkafidaBattle of VelbazhdBattle of RusokastroBattle of ChernomenSiege of TarnovoBattle of Nicopolis

    Major uprisings


    AdrianopleConquest.jpg
    Literature
    Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander

    Prominent writers and scholars:
    Saint NaumClement of OhridChernorizets HrabarConstantine of PreslavJohn the ExarchEvtimiy of TarnovoGregory Tsamblak

    Art and architecture

    Famous examples:
    Madara RiderGreat BasilicaRound ChurchHoly Forty Martyrs ChurchFirst Bulgarian Empire

    AsparukhTervelKrumOmurtagBoris ISimeon IPeter ISamuel

    Second Bulgarian Empire

    Ivan Asen IKaloyanIvan Asen IIKonstantin TihMichael ShishmanIvan Alexander

    Economy
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