The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic group
s of Central
and West Asia
as well as parts of Europe
and North Africa
, who speak Turkic languages
[. "Turkic peoples, any of various peoples whose members speak languages belonging to the Turkic subfamily..."] [. "The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages."]
The origins of the Turkic peoples has been a topic of much discussion. Recent linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest Turkic peoples descended from agricultural communities in Northeast China
who moved westwards into Mongolia
in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle. By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become equestrian nomads
. In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of Central Asia
appear to have been progressively Turkified
by a heterogenous East Asian dominant minority
moving out of Mongolia.
Many vastly differing ethnic group
s have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift
and religious conversion
. Nevertheless, certain Turkic peoples share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common gene pool
, and historical experiences.
The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people
and Uyghur people
The first known mention of the term ''Turk'' (Old Turkic
: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 ''Türük'' or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 ''Kök Türük'', , Pinyin
: Tūjué < Middle Chinese
*''tɦut-kyat'' < *''dwət-kuɑt'', Old Tibetan
[Kultegin's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG](_blank)
[Tonyukuk's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG](_blank)
Bain Tsokto inscriptions
applied to only one Turkic group, namely, the Göktürks
, who were also mentioned, as ''türüg'' ~ ''török'', in the 6th-century Khüis Tolgoi inscription
, most likely not later than 587 AD. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan
to Emperor Wen of Sui
in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan". The Bugut
(584 CE) and Orkhon inscriptions
(735 CE) use the terms ''Türküt'', ''Türk'' and ''Türük''.
Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes the Chinese ''Spring and Autumn Annals
'', which refer to a neighbouring people as ''Beidi
During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela
refers to the ''Turcae'' in the forests north of the Sea of Azov
, and Pliny the Elder
lists the ''Tyrcae'' among the people of the same area. However, English archaeologist Ellis Minns
contended that ''Tyrcae'' Τῦρκαι is "a false correction" for ''Iyrcae
'' Ἱύρκαι, a people who dwelt beyond the Thyssagetae
, according to Herodotus
, iv. 22), and were likely Ugric
ancestors of Magyars
. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names might have been foreign transcriptions of ''Tür(ü)k'' such as ''Togarma''
, ''Turukha''/''Turuška'', ''Turukku''
and so on; but the information gap is so substantial that any connection of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.
It is generally accepted that the name ''Türk'' is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic
migration-term 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 ''Türük''/''Törük'',
which means 'created, born' or 'strong', from the Old Turkic word root ''*türi-''/''töri-'' 'tribal root, (mythic) ancestry; take shape, to be born, be created, arise, spring up' and derived with the Old Turkic suffix 𐰰 (''-ik''), perhaps from Proto-Turkic
''*türi-k'' 'lineage, ancestry',
in ''Turkish Etymological Dictionary'', Sevan Nişanyan.
in ''Turkish Etymological Dictionary'', Sevan Nişanyan.
(compare also the Proto-Turkic word root ''*töre-'' to be born, originate'). Scholars, including Toru Haneda, Onogawa Hidemi, and Geng Shimin believed that ''Di'', ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'' and ''Tujue'' all came from the Turkic word ''Türk'', which means 'powerful' and 'strength', and its plural form is ''Türküt''. Even though Gerhard Doerfer
supports the proposal that ''türk'' means 'strong' in general, Gerard Clauson
points out that "the word ''türk'' is never used in the generalized sense of 'strong'" and that ''türk'' was originally a noun and meant "'the culminating point of maturity' (of a fruit, human being, etc.), but more often used as an djective
meaning (of a fruit) 'just fully ripe'; (of a human being) 'in the prime of life, young, and vigorous'". Turkologist Peter B. Golden agrees that the term ''Turk'' has roots in Old Turkic
. yet is not convinced by attempts to link ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'', ''Tele'', & ''Tiele'', which possibly transcribed *''tegrek'' (probably meaning 'cart
'), to ''Tujue'', which transliterated ''Türküt''. The Chinese Book of Zhou
(7th century) presents an etymology of the name ''Turk'' as derived from 'helmet', explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains
. Hungarian scholar András Róna-Tas
(1991) pointed to a Khotanese-Saka word, ''tturakä'' 'lid', semantically stretchable to 'helmet', as a possible source for this folk etymology, yet Golden thinks this connection requires more data.
The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Gekun
, located in South Siberia. Another earlier people, the Dingling
, are often also assumed to be Proto-Turks, or are alternatively linked to Tungusic peoples
peoples. Medieval European chroniclers subsumed various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe under the "umbrella-identity" of the "Scythians
". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι (''Skuthai'') in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples.
[G. Moravcsik, ''Byzantinoturcica'' II, p. 236–39]
In the modern Turkish language
as used in the Republic of Turkey
, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term ''Türk'' corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term ''Türki
'' refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (''Türki Cumhuriyetler'' or ''Türk Cumhuriyetleri''). However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification
in order to avoid any political
sense. In short, the term ''Türki'' can be used for ''Türk'' or vice versa.
List of ethnic groups
; Historical Turkic groups
* Oghuz Turks
* Yenisei Kirghiz
* Toquz Oghuz
* Chorni Klobuky
Possible Proto-Turkic ancestry, at least partial,
[Pritsak O. & Golb. N: ''Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century'', Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.]
has been posited for Xiongnu
and Pannonian Avars
, as well as Tuoba
), who were of Proto-Mongolic Donghu
The Turkic languages constitute a language family
of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe
and the Mediterranean
, to Siberia
and Western China, and through to the Middle East. Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language;
[Turkic Language family tree]
entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions.
an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a second language
. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper
, or Anatolia
n Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.
More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey
, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman
-dominated areas of Southern and Eastern Europe and West Asia
; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus
, China, and northern Iraq.
The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters (formerly known as runes
), used for writing mostly Turkic languages
. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in Mongolia
. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE.
The earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, and the alphabets were generally replaced by the Old Uyghur alphabet
in the Central Asia
, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia, Cyrillic
in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, and Latin alphabet
in Central Europe. The latest recorded use of Turkic alphabet
was recorded in Central Europe's Hungary in 1699 CE.
The Turkic runiform
scripts, unlike other typologically close scripts of the world, do not have a uniform palaeography
as, for example, have the Gothic
runes, noted for the exceptional uniformity of its language and paleography. The Turkic alphabets are divided into four groups, the best known of them is the Orkhon
version of the Enisei group. The Orkhon script is the alphabet used by the Göktürk
s from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic language
. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire
; a Yenisei
variant is known from 9th-century Kyrgyz
inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley
and the Old Hungarian script
of the 10th century. Irk Bitig
is the only known complete manuscript text written in the Old Turkic script.
The Turkic language family is traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family
The various Turkic languages are usually considered in geographical groupings: the Oghuz
(or Southwestern) languages, the Kypchak
(or Northwestern) languages, the Eastern languages (like Uygur
), the Northern languages (like Altay
), and one existing Oghur
(the other Oghur languages, like Volga Bulgarian
, are now extinct). The high mobility and intermixing of Turkic peoples in history makes an exact classification extremely difficult.
The Turkish language
belongs to the Oghuz subfamily of Turkic. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with the other Oghuz languages, which include Azerbaijani
, and to a varying extent with the other Turkic languages.
While the Turkic language and people may have originated in Mongolia, today most of the Turkic peoples today have their homelands in Central Asia
, but can be found as far west as present-day Turkey. While the term "Turk" may refer to a member of any Turkic people, the term ''Turkish'' usually refers specifically to the people and language of the modern country of Turkey.
At present, there are six independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan
. The Turks in Turkey are over 60 million to 70 million worldwide, while the second largest Turkic people are the Azerbaijanis
, numbering 22 to 38 million worldwide; most of them live in Azerbaijan and Iran.
In the Russian Federation
there are several Turkic national subdivisions, including Bashkortostan
, the Altai Republic
, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya
. Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language (in addition to Russian
The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
in western China and the autonomous region of Gagauzia
, located within eastern Moldova
and bordering Ukraine to the north, are two major autonomous Turkic regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea
within Ukraine is a home of Crimean Tatars
. In addition, there are several communities found in Iraq
, the Republic of North Macedonia
, and western Mongolia
Turks in India
are very small in number. There are barely 150 Turkish people from Turkey in India. These are recent immigrants. Descendants of Turkish rulers also exist in Northern India. Mughals who are part Turkic people also live in India in significant numbers. They are descendants of the Mughal rulers of India. Karlugh Turks
are also found in the Haraza region and in smaller number in Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan. Small amount of Uyghurs are also present in India. Turks also exist in Pakistan in similar proportions. One of the tribe in Hazara region of Pakistan is Karlugh Turks
which is direct descendant of Turks of Central Asia. Turkish influence in Pakistan can be seen through the national language, Urdu, which comes from a Turkish word meaning "horde" or "army".
The Western Yugur
at Gansu in China, Salar at Qinghai in China, the Dolgan
at Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia, and the Nogai at Dagestan in Russia are the Turk minorities in the respective regions.
The origins of the Turkic peoples has historically been disputed, with many theories having been proposed. Peter Benjamin Golden
listed Proto-Turkic lexical items about the climate, topography, flora, fauna, people's modes of subsistence in the hypothetical Proto-Turkic Urheimat and proposed that the Proto-Turkic Urheimat was located at the southern, taiga
zone of the Sayan
region. Martine Robbeets
suggests that the Turkic peoples were descended from a Transeurasian agricultural community based in northeast China
, which is to be associated with the Xinglongwa culture
and the succeeding Hongshan culture
. The East Asian agricultural origin of the Turkic peoples has been corroborated in multiple recent studies. Around 2,200 BC, due to the desertification of northeast China, the agricultural ancestors of the Turkic peoples probably migrated westwards into Mongolia
, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle.
Linguistic and genetic evidence strongly suggest an early presence of Turkic peoples in Mongolia. Genetic studies have shown that the early Turkic peoples were of diverse origins, and that Turkic culture was spread westwards through language diffusion rather than migrations of a homogenous population.
[. "Both Chinese histories and modern dna studies indicate that the early and medieval Turkic peoples were made up of heterogeneous populations. The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion."]
The genetic evidence suggests that the Turkification
of Central Asia was carried out by East Asian dominant minorities
migrating out of Mongolia.
[. "These results suggest that Turkic cultural customs were imposed by an East Asian minority elite onto central steppe nomad populations... The wide distribution of the Turkic languages from Northwest China, Mongolia and Siberia in the east to Turkey and Bulgaria in the west implies large-scale migrations out of the homeland in Mongolia.]
Early historical attestation
Early Turkic speakers, such as the Tiele
(also known as Gaoche 高車, lit. "High Carts"), may be related to Xiongnu
. According to the ''Book of Wei
'', the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di
people competing with the Jin
in the Spring and Autumn period
. Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE.
[Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p. 64]
Historical Arab and Persian descriptions of Turks state that they looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from Arabs. Turks were described as "broad faced people with small eyes".
[The Turks of the Eurasian Steppes in Medieval Arabic Writing, R. Amitai, M. Biran, eds., Mongols, Turks and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World. Leyde, Brill, 2005, pp. 222–3.]
Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans
and Turks resembled each other, and that they often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans.
Moreover, on Western Turkic
coins "the faces of the governor and governess are clearly mongoloid (a roundish face, narrow eyes), and the portrait have definite old Türk features (long hair, absence of headdress of the governor, a tricorn headdress of the governess)".
Xiongnu (3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE)
The earliest separate Turkic peoples, such as the ''Gekun'' (鬲昆) and ''Xinli'' (薪犁), appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu
confederation about 200 BCE
[Sima Qian ''Records of the Grand Historian']
"後北服渾庾、屈射、丁零、鬲昆、薪犁之國。於是匈奴貴人大臣皆服，以冒頓單于爲賢。" tr. "Later e wentnorth ndsubjugated the nations of Hunyu, Qushe, Dingling, Gekun, and Xinli. Therefore, the Xiongnu nobles and dignitaries all admired ndregarded Modun chanyu as capable"
(contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty
[Findley (2005), p. 29.]
and later among the Turkic-speaking Tiele
[Pulleyblank, E. G. "The Name of the Kirghiz." Central Asiatic Journal 34, no. 1/2 (1990). p. 99]
'' (薛). It has even been suggested that the Xiongnu themselves, who were mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic
speakers. Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least a considerable part of Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language. Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. A genetic research in 2003, on skeletons from a 2000 year old Xiongnu necropolis in Mongolia, found individuals with similar DNA sequences as modern Turkic groups, supporting the view that at least parts of the Xiongu were of Turkic origin.
Xiongnu writing, older than Turkic, is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic
alphabet, the Orkhon script
. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly Xiongu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan
and Helan Mountains
. Petroglyphs of this region dates from the 9th millennium BCE
to the 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images. Excavations done during 1924–1925 in Noin-Ula
kurgans located in the Selenga
River in the northern Mongolia
n hills north of Ulaanbaatar
produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the runic
letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley
Huns (4th–6th c. CE)
hordes ruled by Attila
, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been, at least partially, Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu.
[G. Pulleyblank, "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II", Asia Major n.s. 9 (1963) 206–65]
In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes
became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu
people, who were northern neighbours of China
in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. The issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns
are also disputed.
Some scholars regard the Huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-Mongolian
in origin. Linguistic
studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen
and others have suggested that the language used by the Huns in Europe
was too little documented to be classified. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by Huns appear to be Turkic in origin.
Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey
runiforms, and later the Uyghur alphabet
. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include wolves
in Turkic mythology
and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron
, and fire. Turquoise
blue (the word ''turquoise'' comes from the French
word meaning "Turkish") is the color of the stone turquoise
still used in jewelry
and as a protection against the evil eye
Göktürks – Turkic Khaganate (5th–8th c.)
thumb|The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese
text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians
along the Silk Road
. The Ashina
clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai
) to the Rouran
s seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The Ashina tribe were famed metalsmith
s and were granted land near a mountain quarry
which looked like a helmet
, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (''tūjué''), the first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name. In the 6th-century, Ashina's power had increased such that they conquered the Tiele on their Rouran overlords' behalf and even overthrew Rourans and established the First Turkic Khaganate.
In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu
power in Inner Asia
, the Göktürks
assumed leadership of the Turkic peoples. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the nomad
ic Turkic tribes into the Göktürk Empire
on Mongolia and Central Asia. The name derives from ''gok'', "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khaganate had its temporary Khagan
s from the Ashina
clan, who were ''subordinate'' to a sovereign
authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khaganate
retained elements of its original animistic-shamanistic
religion, that later evolved into Tengriism
, although it received missionaries of Buddhist
monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic
in a runic script, the Orkhon script
. The Khaganate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk".
The Göktürks (First Turkic Kaganate
) quickly spread west to the Caspian Sea. Between 581 and 603 the Western Turkic Khaganate
in Kazakhstan separated from the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
in Mongolia and Manchuria
during a civil war. The Han-Chinese successfully overthrew the Eastern Turks in 630 and created a military Protectorate until 682. After that time the Second Turkic Khaganate
ruled large parts of the former Göktürk area. After several wars between Turks, Chinese and Tibetans, the weakened Second Turkic Khaganate was replaced by the Uyghur Khaganate
in the year 744.
[Haywood, John (1998), ''Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600–1492'', Barnes & Noble]
Bulgars, Golden Horde and the Siberian Khanate
established themselves in between the Caspian and Black Seas in the 5th and 6th centuries, followed by their conquerors, the Khazars
who converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century. After them came the Pechenegs
who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the Cumans
and the Kipchaks
. One group of Bulgars settled in the Volga region and mixed with local Volga Finns
to become the Volga Bulgars
in what is today Tatarstan
. These Bulgars were conquered by the Mongols following their westward sweep under Genghis Khan
in the 13th century. Other Bulgars settled in Southeastern Europe in the 7th and 8th centuries, and mixed with the Slavic
population, adopting what eventually became the Slavic Bulgarian language
. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees.
The Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde
in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The Cuman-Kipchak Confederation
and Islamic Volga Bulgaria
were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under Uzbeg Khan
where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the Kipchak language
and were collectively known as "Tatars
" by Russians and Westerners. This country was also known as the Kipchak Khanate
and covered most of what is today Ukraine
, as well as the entirety of modern-day southern and eastern Russia
(the European section). The Golden Horde disintegrated into several khanates and hordes in the 15th and 16th century including the Crimean Khanate
, Khanate of Kazan
, and Kazakh Khanate
(among others), which were one by one conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire in the 16th through 19th centuries.
In Siberia, the Siberian Khanate
was established in the 1490s by fleeing Tatar aristocrats of the disintegrating Golden Horde
who established Islam as the official religion in western Siberia over the partly Islamized native Siberian Tatars
and indigenous Uralic peoples. It was the northernmost Islamic state in recorded history and it survived up until 1598 when it was conquered by Russia.
Uyghur Khaganate (8th–9th c.)
The Uyghur empire ruled large parts of Mongolia, Northern and Western China and parts of northern Manchuria. They followed largely Buddhism
traditions. During the same time, the Shatuo Turks
emerged as power factor in Northern and Central China and were recognized by the Tang Empire as allied power. The Uyghur empire fell after several wars in the year 840.
Turks had founded several short-lived sinicized
dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names. Some Shaotuo Turks emperors also claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.
[According to ''Old History of the Five Dynasties'', vol. 99, and ''New History of the Five Dynasties'', vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to ''Wudai Huiyao'']
Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
[According to ''Old History of the Five Dynasties'', vol. 99, and ''New History of the Five Dynasties'', vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to ''Wudai Huiyao'']
Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
After the fall of the Tang-Dynasty in 907, the Shatuo Turks replaced them and created the Later Tang Dynasty
in 923. The Shatuo Turks ruled over a large part of northern China, including Beijing
. They adopted Chinese names and united Turkic and Chinese traditions. Later Tang fall in 937 but the Shatuo rose to become one of the most powerful clans of China. They created several other dynasies, including the Later Jin
and Later Han
. The Shatuo Turks were later assimilated into the Han Chinese
ethnic group after they were conquered by the Song dynasty
The Yenisei Kyrgyz allied with China to destroy the Uyghur Khaganate in 840. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan
Kangar union (659–750)
The Kangar Union (''Qanghar Odaghu'') was a Turkic
state in the former territory of the Western Turkic Khaganate (the entire present-day state of Kazakhstan
, without Zhetysu
). The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the Kangly
people, who are now part of the Kazakh
, and Karakalpak
nations. The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains. The Pechenegs, three of whose tribes were known as Kangar (Greek
: Καγγαρ), after being defeated by the Oghuzes
, and Kimek
, attacked the Bulgars
and established the Pecheneg state in Eastern Europe (840–990 CE).
Oghuz Yabgu State (766–1055)
The Oguz Yabgu State (''Oguz il'', meaning "Oguz Land,", "Oguz Country")(750–1055) was a Turkic
state, founded by Oghuz Turks
in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the Caspian
and Aral Sea
s. Oguz tribes occupied a vast territory in Kazakhstan
along the Irgiz
, and Uil
rivers, the Aral Sea area, the Syr Darya
valley, the foothills of the Karatau Mountains
, and the Chui River
valley (see map). The Oguz political association developed in the 9th and 10th centuries in the basin of the middle and lower course of the Syr Darya and adjoining the modern western Kazakhstan steppes.
Iranian, Indian, Arabic, and Anatolian expansion
Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Northeastern China
, present-day Mongolia
and the Turkestan
-region towards the Iranian plateau
, South Asia, and Anatolia
(modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown.
=Ghaznavid dynasty (977–1186)
The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa|غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate Muslim
dynasty of Turkic ''mamluk
'' origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran
, much of Transoxiana
and the northwest Indian subcontinent
(part of Pakistan) from 977 to 1186.
[C.E. Bosworth: ''The Ghaznavids''. Edinburgh, 1963] [C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'', Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007]
The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin
upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna
after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin
, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire
, north of the Hindu Kush
in Greater Khorasan
Online Edition 2007
Although the dynasty was of Central Asian
Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised
in terms of language, culture, literature and habits and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty".
=Seljuk Empire (1037–1194)
The Seljuk Empire ( fa|آل سلجوق|translit=Āl-e Saljuq|lit=House of Saljuq) or the Great Seljuq Empire was a high medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire
, originating from the Qiniq
branch of Oghuz Turks
. At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia
and the Levant
to the Hindu Kush
in the east, and from Central Asia
to the Persian Gulf
in the south.
The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg
(1016–1063) and his brother Chaghri Beg
(989–1060) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea
, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan
and then into mainland Persia
, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert
in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire
, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade
(1095–1099). From c. 1150–1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was invaded by the Mongols
around 1260. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirate
s. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman
, would conquer the rest.
=Timurid Empire (1370–1507)
The Timurid Empire
were a Turko-Mongol empire founded in the late 14th century by Timurlane
, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur, although a self-proclaimed devout Muslim, brought great slaughter in his conquest of fellow Muslims in neighboring Islamic territory and contributed to the ultimate demise of many Muslim states, including the Golden Horde.
= Central Asian khanates (1501–1920)
The Bukhara Khanate
was an Uzbek state that existed from 1501 to 1785. The khanate was ruled by three dynasties of the Shaybanids
, Janids and the Uzbek dynasty of Mangits
. In 1785, Shahmurad
, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit
dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukhara
(1785-1920). In 1710, the Kokand Khanate (1710-1876) separated from the Bukhara Khanate. In 1511-1920, Khwarazm
(Khiva Khanate) was ruled by the Arabshahid dynasty and the Uzbek dynasty of Kungrats.
=Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)
The Safavid dynasty
(1501–1736) were of mixed ancestry (Kurdish
[RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz.](_blank)
["Peoples of Iran"](_blank)
''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye.
which included intermarriages with Georgian
, and Pontic Greek
[Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond"]
dignitaries). Through intermarriage and other political considerations, the Safavids spoke Persian and Turkish,
and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama
of Shah Tahmasp
[Ira Marvin Lapidus, ''A history of Islamic Societies'', Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd edition. pg 445: To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions."]
The Safavid dynasty ruled parts of Greater Iran
for more than two centuries. and established the Twelver
school of Shi'a Islam
[RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', 2nd ed.]
as the official religion
of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history
=Afsharid dynasty (1736-1796)
The Afsharid dynasty
was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which they belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan
in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah
who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty
and proclaimed himself King of Iran
. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars. During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire
The Delhi Sultanate
is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi
-based kingdoms three of which were of Turkic origin in medieval India
. These Turkic dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty
(1206–90); the Khalji dynasty
(1290–1320); and the Tughlaq dynasty
(1320–1414). Southern India
also saw many Turkic origin dynasties like the Bahmani Sultanate
, the Adil Shahi dynasty
, the Bidar Sultanate
, and the Qutb Shahi dynasty
, collectively known as the Deccan sultanates
The Mughal Empire
was a Turko-Mongol founded Indian empire that, at its greatest territorial extent, ruled most of South Asia, including Afghanistan
, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh
and parts of Uzbekistan
from the early 16th to the early 18th centuries. The Mughal dynasty was founded by a Chagatai
Turkic prince named Babur
(reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur
(Tamerlane) on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol
ruler Genghis Khan
, on his mother's side.
[Encyclopædia Britannica Articl]
/ref> A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.
The Arab Muslim Umayyads and Abbasids fought against the pagan Turks in the Türgesh Khaganate in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. The Medieval Arabs recorded that Medieval Turks looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from the Arabs, calling them "broad faced people with small eyes".
Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans and Turks resembled each other, and that they often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans.
Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the 10th century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire.
Anatolia – Ottomans
After many battles, the western Oghuz Turks established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire. The main migration of the Oghuz Turks occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.
[Carter V. Findley, ''The Turks in World History'' (Oxford University Press, October 2004) ] They also took part in the military encounters of the Crusades. In 1090–91, the Turkic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army.
As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.
Turkic peoples like the Karluks (mainly 8th century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Turkmens later came into contact with Muslims, and most of them gradually adopted Islam. Some groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including their original animistic-shamanistic religion, Christianity, Burkhanism, Jews (Khazars, Krymchaks, Crimean Karaites), Buddhism and a small number of Zoroastrians.
The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of poor administration, repeated wars with Russia, Austria and Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day Republic of Turkey.
Ethnic nationalism also developed in Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, taking the form of Pan-Turkism or Turanism.
The Turkic peoples of Central Asia were not organized in nation-states during most of the 20th century, after the collapse of the Russian Empire living either in the Soviet Union or (after a short-lived First East Turkestan Republic) in the Chinese Republic.
In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, five Turkic states gained their independence. These were Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Other Turkic regions such as Tatarstan, Tuva, and Yakutia remained in the Russian Federation. Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.
Immediately after the independence of the Turkic states, Turkey began seeking diplomatic relations with them. Over time political meetings between the Turkic countries increased and led to the establishment of TÜRKSOY in 1993 and later the Turkic Council in 2009.
There are several international organizations created with the purpose of furthering cooperation between countries with Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture (TÜRKSOY) and the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking Countries (TÜRKPA) and the Turkic Council.
The TAKM – Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status, was established on 25 January 2013. It is an intergovernmental military law enforcement (gendarmerie) organization of currently three Turkic countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey) and Kazakhstan as observer.
Türksoy carries out activities to strengthen cultural ties between Turkic peoples. One of the main goals to transmit their common cultural heritage to future generations and promote it around the world.
Every year, one city in the Turkic world is selected as the "Cultural Capital of the Turkic World". Within the framework of events to celebrate the Cultural Capital of the Turkic World, numerous cultural events are held, gathering artists, scholars and intellectuals, giving them the opportunity to exchange their experiences, as well as promoting the city in question internationally.
The newly established Turkic Council, founded on November 3, 2009 by the ''Nakhchivan Agreement'' confederation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey, aims to integrate these organizations into a tighter geopolitical framework.
The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Uzbekistan. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006. Turkmenistan is currently not an official member of the council, however, it is a possible future member of the council. Hungary has announced to be interested in joining the Turkic council. Since August 2018, Hungary has official observer status in the Turkic Council.
The distribution of people of Turkic cultural background ranges from Siberia, across Central Asia, to Southern Europe. the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan, in addition to Turkey and Iran. Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western China, northern Iraq, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, Cyprus, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland. There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century.
Sometimes ethnographers group Turkic people into six branches: the Oghuz Turks, Kipchak, Karluk, Siberian, Chuvash, and Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks.
The genetic distances between the different populations of Uzbeks scattered across Uzbekistan is no greater than the distance between many of them and the Karakalpaks. This suggests that Karakalpaks and Uzbeks have very similar origins. The Karakalpaks have a somewhat greater bias towards the eastern markers than the Uzbeks.
The following incomplete list of Turkic people shows the respective groups' core areas of settlement and their estimated sizes (in millions):
Markets in the steppe region had a limited range of foodstuffs available—mostly grains, dried fruits, spices, and tea. Turks mostly herded sheep, goats and horses. Dairy was a staple of the nomadic diet and there are many Turkic words for various dairy products such as ''süt'' (milk), ''yagh'' (butter), ayran, ''qaymaq'' (similar to clotted cream), qi̅mi̅z (fermented mare's milk) and ''qurut'' (dried yoghurt). During the Middle Ages Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Tatars, who were historically part of the Turkic nomadic group known as the Golden Horde, continued to develop new variations of dairy products.
Nomadic Turks cooked their meals in a ''qazan'', a pot similar to a cauldron; a wooden rack called a ''qasqan'' can be used to prepare certain steamed foods, like the traditional meat dumplings called ''manti''. They also used a ''saj'', a griddle that was traditionally placed on stones over a fire, and ''shish''. In later times, the Persian tava was borrowed from the Persians for frying, but traditionally nomadic Turks did most of their cooking using the qazan, saj and shish. Meals were served in a bowl, called a ''chanaq'', and eaten with a knife (''bïchaq'') and spoon (''qashi̅q''). Both bowl and spoon were historically made from wood. Other traditional utensils used in food preparation included a thin rolling pin called ''oqlaghu'', a colander called ''süzgu̅çh'', and a grinding stone called ''tāgirmān''.
Medieval grain dishes included preparations of whole grains, soups, porridges, breads and pastries. Fried or toasted whole grains were called ''qawïrmach'', while ''köchä'' was crushed grain that was cooked with dairy products. ''Salma'' were broad noodles that could be served with boiled or roasted meat; cut noodles were called ''tutmaj'' in the Middle Ages and are called ''kesme'' today.
There are many types of bread doughs in Turkic cuisine. ''Yupqa'' is the thinnest type of dough, ''bawi̅rsaq'' is a type of fried bread dough, and ''chälpäk'' is a deep fried flat bread. ''Qatlama'' is a fried bread that may be sprinkled with dried fruit or meat, rolled, and sliced like pinwheel sandwiches. ''Toqach'' and ''chöräk'' are varieties of bread, and böräk is a type of filled pie pastry.
Herd animals were usually slaughtered during the winter months and various types of sausages were prepared to preserve the meats, including a type of sausage called ''sujuk''. Though prohibited by Islamic dietary restrictions, historically Turkic nomads also had a variety of blood sausage. One type of sausage, called ''qazi̅'', was made from horsemeat and another variety was filled with a mixture of ground meat, offal and rice. Chopped meat was called ''qïyma'' and spit-roasted meat was ''söklünch''—from the root ''sök-'' meaning "to tear off", the latter dish is known as kebab in modern times. ''Qawirma'' is a typical fried meat dish, and ''kullama'' is a soup of noodles and lamb.
Early Turkic mythology and Tengrism
Pre-Islamic Turkic mythology was dominated by Shamanism, Animism and Tengrism. The Turkic animistic traditions were mostly focused on ancestor worship, polytheistic-animism and shamanism. Later this animistic tradition would form the more organized Tengrism. The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire in 763.
The wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the Göktürks. The horse and predatory birds, such as the eagle or falcon, are also main figures of Turkic mythology.
Tengri Bögü Khan made the now extinct Manichaeism the state religion of Uyghur Khaganate in 763 and it was also popular in Karluks. It was gradually replaced by the Mahayana Buddhism. It existed in the Buddhist Uyghur Gaochang up to the 12th century.
Tibetan Buddhism, or Vajrayana was the main religion after Manichaeism. They worshipped Täŋri Täŋrisi Burxan, Quanšï Im Pusar and Maitri Burxan. Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia. The Sari Uygurs "Yellow Yughurs" of Western China, as well as the Tuvans and Altai of Russia are the only remaining Buddhist Turkic peoples.
Most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims, although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism. Azeris are traditionally Shiite Muslims. Religious observance is less stricter in the Republic of Azerbaijan compared to Iranian Azerbaijan.
The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash of Chuvashia and the Gagauz (''Gökoğuz'') of Moldova. The traditional religion of the Chuvash of Russia, while containing many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrianism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam.
The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the 19th century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith. Church of the East was popular among Turks such as the Naimans. It even revived in Gaochang and expanded in Xinjiang in the Yuan dynasty period. It disappeared after its collapse.
Today there are several groups that support a revival of the ancient traditions. Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many in Central Asia converted or openly practice animistic and shamanistic rituals. It is estimated that about 60% of Kyrgyz people practice a form of animistic rituals. In Kazakhstan there are about 54.000 followers of the ancient traditions.
=Muslim Turks and non-Muslim Turks
Kara-Khanids performed a mass conversion campaign against the Buddhist Uyghur Turks during the Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang.
The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri and other gods was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them – ''The Infidels – May God destroy them!''
The Basmil, Yabāḳu and Uyghur states were among the Turkic peoples who fought against the Kara-Khanids spread of Islam. The Islamic Kara-Khanids were made out of Tukhai, Yaghma, Çiğil and Karluk.
Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu. The Yabaqu were a Turkic people.
Mahmud al-Kashgari insulted the Uyghur Buddhists as "Uighur dogs" and called them "Tats", which referred to the "Uighur infidels" according to the Tuxsi and Taghma, while other Turks called Persians "tat". While Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turks diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uighur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks.
Kyz kuu (chase the girl) has been played by Turkic people at festivals since time immemorial.
Horses have been essential and even sacred animals for Turks living as nomadic tribes in the Central Asian steppes. Turks were born, grew up, lived, fought and died on horseback. Jereed became the most important sporting and ceremonial game of Turkish people.
The kokpar began with the nomadic Turkic peoples who have come from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries.
"jigit" is used in the Caucasus and Central Asia to describe a skillful and brave equestrian, or a brave person in general.
Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes
Images of Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes.
File:Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg|Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
File:Uighur prince from Bezeklik murals.jpg|Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Uighur woman from Bezeklik murals.jpg|Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 064.jpg|Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 063.jpg|Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Uigure-bezeklik-17.jpg|Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Uigure-bezeklik-19.jpg|Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
File:Manichaean Temple Banner (MIK III 6283).jpg|Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 067.jpg|Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
File:ManichaeanElectaeKocho10thCentury.jpg|Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 066.jpg|Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 061.jpg|Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
File:Manicheans.jpg|Manicheans from Qocho
File:Omurtag1.jpg|Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
File:Azerigirls.JPG|Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
File:Young bashqorts.jpg|Bashkir boys in national dress.
File:Russian Winter Festival London 2007 115.jpg|A female Chuvash dancer in traditional dress.
File:Uyghur man kashkar.jpg|Uyghur man in Kashkar.
File:Хакасы.JPG|Khakas people with traditional instruments.
File:At the On-Archa village in Naryn district. Kyrgyzstan. 04.10.2012.jpg|Kyrgyz elders in On-Archa, Kyrgyzstan.
File:Kudaibergen in Moscow (49442429177).jpg|Kazakh singer and songwriter Dimash Kudaibergen
File:Ногайцы 01.jpg|Nogai man in national costume.
File:RIAN archive 477235 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Tatarstan.jpg|U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Tatarstan.
File:Dursunbey yerelkıyafeti.JPG|Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
File:Turkman girl in national dress.jpg|Turkmen girl in national dress.
File:Мөгелер биле Даңгыналар2. 2016.jpg|Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
File:Uyghur_girl_in_Turpan,_Xinjiang,_China_-_20050712.jpg|An Uyghur girl - a natural blond with epicanthic fold in Xinjiang, China.
File:Uzbek Kids.JPG|Uzbek children in Samarkand.
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* Turko-Persian tradition
* List of Turkic dynasties and countries
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at University of Michigan
Category:Ethnic groups in China
Category:Central Asian people
Category:Nomadic groups in Eurasia