ZAZ or Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant ( uk|ЗАЗ, Запорізький автомобілебудівельний завод, ''Zaporiz'kyi avtomobilebudivnyi zavod'' or ''Zaporiz'kyi avtozavod'') is the main automobile
manufacturer of Ukraine
, based in the south-eastern city of Zaporizhzhia
. It also produces bus
es and truck
s and is known for its former parent company's name, AvtoZAZ
From A. J. Koop to Kommunar
The company that became ZAZ developed out of four business founded by German entrepreneur Abraham J. Koop to manufacture agricultural machinery. The factory had been built for local Mennonite
industrialist Abraham J. Koop in 1863. It produced iron parts for the windmill
s and plow
s. They were nationalized and restarted as the state-operated Kommunar factory which continued to produce twenty-four types of machines;. its first combine harvester
s appeared in 1929, with 129,724 built by 1952 (not counting the war years). In 1930 Kommunar started to produce the first Soviet harvester Kommunar which was based on the American Holt Caterpillar
horse-drawn harvester. The production of the harvester allowed the Soviet Union to cease import of harvesters from abroad.
From harvesters to cars
Design of a car accessible to the public, and one in part taking the place of the soon to be discontinued Moskvitch 401
, began in 1956.
Following the growing trend of small cars (then accounting for between 25% and 40% of all European car sales), the minister in charge of ''Minavtroprom
'' (the Soviet automotive ministry) selected the new Fiat 600
as the model to follow.
The first prototype, the MZMA 444
, appeared in October 1957.
It was powered by a flat twin
-cylinder MD-65 engine provided by the Irbitskyi Motorcycle Plant
, which was "totally unsuited": it produced only and lasted only between major overhauls.
As a result, a search for another engine was begun, and the success of the VW Type 1
led to a preference for an air-cooled
engine, which NAMI (the National Automobile Institute) had on the drawing board.
''Minavtroprom'', however, preferred a
[Thompson, p.92.] V4 engine
, the NAMI-G, which had the additional advantage of being developed for the LuAZ-967
The new car was approved for production 28 November 1958, the name changing to ZAZ (Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant) to reflect the new profile.
["ZAZ-965/965A" (in Russian). Avtolegendy SSSR, Nr. 17. DeAgostini 2009. .]
The Zaporizhzhia factory was supplemented with the Mikoyan Diesel-Building Factory in Melitopol
, which was part of the ''Soyuzdiesel'' combinat.
The first car, dubbed the ZAZ-965 Zaporozhets
, was delivered 12 June 1959,
was approved 25 July 1960, and entered production 25 October.
Following on the success of the 965, plant manager Yuri Sorochkin planned a forward control microbus on the 965's platform (akin to the VW Type 2 being built on a modified Type 1 pan), with a payload, as the ZAZ 970. Sorochkin hoped to capture the market for compact utility vehicles, which were in perennially short supply in the Soviet Union. The project was prototyped by a team under Yuri Danilov, which pioneered use of -thick steel in the Soviet Union.] [Thompson, p.206.] The steel was provided by Zaporizkyi Metallurgical Plant. The engine and transmission were straight out of a 965, which caused liftover problems, because the V4 was mounted under the rear floor. [Thompson, p.207.] Three prototypes were built in 1962: a van with payload and volume, a pickup with a payload, and a microbus able to seat six or seven plus a ; even four-wheel drive models (971, 971B, and 971V) were planned. None was built.
Further growth in Ukraine
In 1975 the factory was consolidated in the AvtoZAZ holding, which was transformed into joint-stock company in 1990s. In 1986 ZAZ together with Comau installed a new production complex. The Illichivsk factory of automobile parts (IZAA) in one of the biggest freight sea ports on Black Sea in Illichivsk became part of the AutoZAZ holding. Newer front wheel drive cars are based on model 1102 Tavria (1989–2007) and are powered by a water cooled, front mounted MeMZ engine and fall into micro-class. On June 1, 1994 the factory ceased production of its 968M model.
When AvtoZAZ-Daewoo joint venture with Daewoo Motors was formed in 1998, ZAZ was assigned to the new company as a 50% share on behalf of AvtoZAZ. Daewoo Motors made large investments and established the production of its own models, while keeping and modernizing the native ZAZ brand. CKD kits of Daewoo Lanos, Daewoo Nubira and Daewoo Leganza started assembling the same year in Chornomorsk; at the same time, CKD assembly of a number of older VAZ models started.
Following the bankruptcy of Daewoo Motors in 2001, UkrAVTO corporation bought out AvtoZAZ holding in 2002. All of the AvtoZAZ manufacturing facilities (most notably, MeMZ and Illichivsk assembling plant) were reincorporated into ZAZ. The company even adopted a new logo. The Daewoo part in the joint venture was bought out by Swiss venture ''Hirsch & CIE'' in 2003.
End of 2004 saw the beginning of full-scale production of completely domestic ZAZ Lanos (T150), now that CKD kits of Lanos were no longer supplied. In 2006, ZAZ reached an agreement with the Chinese manufacturer Chery Automobile to assemble passenger cars from kits and from 2011 started full-scale production of the Chery A13 under its own badge as ZAZ Forza. The same year production of the Chevrolet Aveo (T250) was moved from the FSO car factory to ZAZ.
By Decree of the President of Ukraine, CJSC "ZAZ" employees were rewarded with State awards of Ukraine in 2009.
In the first half of 2012 ZAZ manufactured 20,060 vehicles, a 30% decline from the same period in 2011. In 2012 Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant started serial full-scale production of new car model, the ZAZ Vida.
ZAZ and its reputation
ZAZ's products were never held in high esteem by Soviet citizens. In fact, ZAZ's original mission was to create a "people's car", almost like Volkswagen's initial mission. In May 2009, ZAZ won the international tender for the production of vehicles for veterans and disabled people of Azerbaijan.
Former full-scale production
*ZAZ-965 Zaporozhets (1960–1969)
*ZAZ-966 Zaporozhets (1967–1972)
*ZAZ-968 Zaporozhets (1972–1994)
*ZAZ-1102 Tavria (1989–1997)
*ZAZ-1102 Tavria Nova (1998–2007)
*ZAZ-1105 Dana (1994–1997)
*ZAZ-11055 Pick-up (1998–2011)
*ZAZ-1103 Slavuta (1998–2011)
Current full-scale production
*ZAZ Lanos (also known as ZAZ Chance and Chevrolet Lanos on Russian market) (2005–present)
*ZAZ Sens (also known as ZAZ Chance 1.4 on Russian market) (2005–present)
*ZAZ Lanos Cargo (2005–present)
*ZAZ Forza (also known as Chery Bonus/Chery Very on Russian market) (2010–present)
*ZAZ Vida (2012–present)
*ZAZ Vida Cargo (2016–present)
*ZAZ Getman (2022–present)
*ZAZ Mazepa (2022–present)
Former complete knock down assembly
Performed at the Illichivsk Automobile Parts Plant (IZAA):
thumb|250px|alt=TATA LPT-613 truck|TATA LPT-613 truck assembled at Melitopol Motor Plant
*Chevrolet Aveo (2004–unknown) (model T200)
*Chevrolet Aveo (2006–unknown) (model T250)
*Chevrolet Captiva (2005–unknown)
*Chevrolet Epica (2005–unknown)
*Chevrolet Evanda (2005–unknown)
*Chevrolet Lacetti (2003–unknown) (model J200)
*Chrysler 300 (2009–unknown)
*Daewoo Lanos (1998–2005) (model T100)
*Daewoo Sens (2002–2005)
*Daewoo Nubira (1998–2001)
*Daewoo Leganza (1998–2001)
*Daewoo Tacuma (2005–unknown)
*Kia Cerato (unknown years)
*Kia Magentis (unknown years)
*Kia Mohave (unknown years)
*Kia Picanto (unknown years)
*Kia Rio (unknown years)
*Kia Sorento (unknown years)
*ZAZ-A07A I-Van (2005-2014)
*ZAZ-A10C I-Van (2008-2014)
Former production performed at the Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant (ZAZ):
*Chery Amulet (2005-unknown)
*Dacia Solenza (2003)
*Kia Cee'd (2009–2010)
*Kia Sportage (2009–present)
*Lada 21093 (2005–present)
*Lada 21099 (2005–present)
*Opel Astra (2003–unknown)
*Opel Vectra (2003–unknown)
*Opel Corsa (2003–unknown)
*Opel Combo (2003–unknown)
*Mercedes-Benz E-Class (2002–2006)
*Mercedes-Benz M-Class (2002–2006)
Current production performed at the Melitopol Motor Plant (MeMZ):
*ZAZ-A07A I-Van (2014–present)
*ZAZ-A10C I-Van (2014–present)
*TATA LPT-613 (2014–present)
Assembly in other countries
* Poland (Damis) - ZAZ-1102 Tavria
* Syria - ZAZ-1103 Slavuta
* Egypt (General Motors Egypt) - Chevrolet Lanos
* Kazakhstan (AgromashHolding) - ZAZ Chance
File:Tavria_red.jpg|ZAZ Tavria in Poland
File:CairoTransportWhiteTaxi.jpg|Chevrolet Lanos is assembled in Egypt using parts from ZAZ
File:Цех сборки автомобилей SsangYong и Chance.jpg|Assembly of SsangYong and ZAZ Chance in Kazakhstan
Currently produced cars and buses under ZAZ brand
File:ЗАЗ-Сенс.JPG|ZAZ Sens/Chance/Lanos (since 2005)
File:ЗАЗ_Ланос-фургон.jpg|ZAZ Sens/Lanos Pick-up (since 2005)
File:ZAZFORZA.jpg|ZAZ Forza (since 2010)
File:FSO_Chevrolet_Aveo_II_Sedan_front_-_PSM_2009.jpg|ZAZ Vida (since 2012)
File:ZAZ_I-VAN.jpg|ZAZ-A07A I-Van bus (since 2005)
File:ZAZ_07.jpg|ZAZ-A10C I-Van bus (since 2008)
File:Saporoshez ZAZ 965 A.JPG|ZAZ-965A Zaporozhets (1960–1969)
File:ZAZ-966_front_view.jpg|ZAZ-966 Zaporozhets (1967–1972)
File:Sapikas.IMG_2825.JPG|ZAZ-968M Zaporozhets (1972–1994)
File:TAVRIA.JPG|ZAZ-1102 Tavria (1989–1997)
File:%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%B7_1105_%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0_2013-09-24_20-40.jpg|ZAZ-1105 Dana (1994–1997)
File:Tavria_in_Krasnoarmiisk.JPG|ZAZ-1102 Tavria Nova (1998–2007)
File:SLAVUTA_F.JPG|ZAZ-1103 Slavuta (1998–2011)
File:Tavria_pickup.JPG|ZAZ-11055 Tavria Pick-up (1998–2011)
File:Daewoo_Nubira_front_20081007.jpg|Daewoo Nubira (1998–2001)
File:20100902_daewoo_leganza_1.jpg|Daewoo Leganza (1998–2001)
File:Sens_1.jpg|Daewoo Sens/Lanos (1998-2005)
File:Шевроле Ланос.JPG|Chevrolet Lanos (2008-2012)
File:Шевроле_Лачетти.JPG|Chevrolet Lacetti (2003-2012)
* (Ukrainian, Russian and English)
* (Ukrainian, Russian and English)
Auto ZAZ specifications
Category:Companies based in Zaporizhzhia
Category:Car manufacturers of Ukraine
Category:Motor vehicle assembly plants in Ukraine